ETHNIC ATLAS OF THE UNITED STATES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albert J. Fritsch, SJ

 

 

Graphics: Janet Powell and

Mark Spencer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

ISBN: 978-0-9846448-4-1

 

 

Copyright 2013 by Earth Healing, Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

Acknowledgments

Introduction: Why an Ethnic Atlas Project?

Real Puzzles

Ethnic and Ecological Consciousness

Awareness of Ethnic Centers and Festivals

Pride in Ethnicity and Being American

Ethnic Amalgamation or Ethnic Diversification

Patterns of Differences over Decades

 

State-by-State Discussion

 

AL Alabama MT Montana

AK Alaska NE Nebraska

AR Arkansas NV Nevada

AZ Arizona NH New Hampshire

CA California NJ New Jersey

CO Colorado NM New Mexico

CN Connecticut NY New York

DE Delaware NC North Carolina

DC District of Columbia ND North Dakota

FL Florida OH Ohio

GA Georgia OK Oklahoma

HI Hawaii OR Oregon

ID Idaho PA Pennsylvania

IL Illinois RI Rhode Island

IN Indiana SC South Carolina

IA Iowa SD South Dakota

KS Kansas TN Tennessee

KY Kentucky TX Texas

LO Louisiana UT Utah

ME Maine VT Vermont

MD Maryland VA Virginia

MA Massachusetts WA Washington

MI Michigan WV West Virginia

MN Minnesota WI Wisconsin

MS Mississippi WY Wyoming

MO Missouri

 

 

 

State Maps

 

1980

1990

2000

2010

 

 

State Primary and Secondary Groups 2000

 

West Virginia Celtic Composite - 2010

 

 

 

References

 

 

 

Appendices

Appendix 1 Appalachian: An Emerging Ethnic Group

Appendix 2 General Notes for Year 2000 Maps

Appendix 3 Color Codes

Appendix 4 Ethnic Letter Key

Appendix 5 Ethnic Groups Highlighted in 2010 State Maps

Appendix 6 Native American Reservations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Albert J. Fritsch, SJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgments

 

The biggest challenge for a budding octogenarian is to recall over the third of a century while this book was in the making just how many people contributed in large and small ways.

The two people who gave so much to this project over the years not through total time but in key periods when collecting data, developing and illustrating maps, and assembling the entire project were Janet Powell and Mark Spencer; without their loving dedication this work would still be in file folders of data. Their use of computers and Photoshop were absolutely critical, for this author was never able to negotiate a single illustrated map through his limited skills. Also Mark traveled to help determine specific ethnic areas and he designed the layout of the 1980, 1990 and 2010 maps. We are always grateful to the late Mary Davis who edited the initial text of this book and to the late Kristin Johannsen for general comments n its structure. Special thanks is due to my sister, Pat Hoover, who commented on various portions of the project and to grants from our Kentucky Jesuit Mission community.

 

Gratitude is due to John Horstman who helped with early compilations of statistics, to Professor Carl Raitz of the University of Kentucky for encouragement in launching this project, to Ben Perraut and Art Purcell as traveling assistants, to the various ethnic associations that sent descriptive materials on Amish, Germans from Russia, Danish, Czech, and Slovak concentrations, and to Gerry Helferich and Facts on Files who gave some initial support to this project. Over the course of three decades I have visited numerous ethnic centers and cultural festivals throughout the United States and always found guides and receptionists to be quite knowledgeable, enthusiastic, and willing to answer any and all questions pertaining to the particular people and place.

 

 


Introduction: Why an Ethnic Atlas Project?

 

Real Puzzles

 

Why exert time and energy on something so far removed from my usual Earthhealing environmental focus? The question accompanies a real puzzle that was initiated as an way of spending my free time when I returned to Appalachia in the 1970s. I was intrigued about the roots of the culture of the region. How can anyone meaningfully address public interest issues without first knowing people, their views, and how they respond to problems? This involves their ethnicity.

 

Constructed puzzles in the commercial arena are interesting, but real puzzles are doubly intriguing. We all need hobbies to take our minds off everyday stresses of life. Collecting and analyzing real statistics is a pleasant diversion to a very few of us who shun fiction. Manufactured puzzles are not really appealing when real ones exist that when solved, will benefit others. The ethnic picture of Appalachia and of the United States has always been a real puzzle because it is quite complex and it is in flux. Obtaining a static view at one time has some merit, but a more challenging puzzle is to unfold the changing face of ethnic America over time, a truly social, ecological, and academic issue.

 

Some are more aware of their ethnicity and are proud of their particular ancestry; others are silent and would like to keep it hidden. Today a sizeable number of citizens define themselves as "American" because they are either confused about their ethnic roots or find the categories do not satisfy their own yet unlisted ethnic preferences. Truly, being American applies to all of us in this country, either those here with roots for centuries or those who are recent immigrants. Some prefer to associate with their ethnic kin either for support or because of an ethnic pride worth celebrating on occasions. We are all ethnic in some way or other; it is just that other issues in life often dampen this consciousness. In the deep-down heart of things, most people would like to uncover more about their own roots and share with others.

 

Awareness of our individual ethnic roots increases when we spend time discovering the cultural wealth of our ancestors' homelands. Orphans want to learn about parents; native-born Americans carry out ancestry searches; third generation Americans return to the Old Country; ex-slaves are fascinated with tracing cultural backgrounds. We are who we are, and others who have passed on had a hand in fashioning this. Our genealogical histories open doors for us, but so do the cultures all around us in our locality, each contributing in some little way in making us a community. What is presented here is not one's unique and personal history but that of the American ethnic environment. Together with our hidden roots are those of the neighborhood, region, state, and nation, the neighbors who share their ethnicity with the rest of us. This contribution fashions our actions and reactions in ways we often overlook. May we know ourselves better and thus cooperate through this shared knowledge.

 

 

Ethnic and Ecological Consciousness

 

Ethnic awareness can also be environmental awareness -- our homes and community structures, our interactions with friends, our recreational and educational choices, our tolerance for weather changes, our celebrations and joys, our religious worship and ways of conducting and participating in funerals and weddings, and our many interrelationships -- are frequently rooted in our ethnicity or in the collective ethnicity of a community. How we solve problems as a democratic people depends on the social capital, which we are helping to shape and in which we have invested much of ourselves. The way we practice our democracy and our sense of civility is partly an inherited pattern coming through participation in a democratic community. So is our ecological ethic that is part of social capital, namely, the way we treat livestock and wildlife, soil and trees, people and Earth herself.

 

Ethnicity enters into our current public interest issues and ought not be neglected, for we all have differences both as individuals and as members of a community. As the ethnic composition changes over time, we can become reactionary and entrenched in our traditional ways, even detesting recent arrivals and their contributing ethnic characteristics. We are members of families with ethnic traits and still are also participants in communities that have absorbed a variety of such traits to start new ethnic groups that emerge over time (see Appendix 1).

 

When we delve more deeply we find that merely identifying with a certain ethnic group through answers to a census-taker is not the whole story.1 We may identify our personal preference as far as subjective knowledge allows for an honest answer, but are unclear as to which portion of a mixed ancestry we ought to declare. One who is non-Germanic in a heavily German community may be willing to be assimilated and join cultural groups so associated, or may wish to express differences by reaffirming one's roots. Resistance may be difficult and we will allow majority views to go unchallenged in matters of economics, social life, or politics.

 

Some regard their ethnicity as personal and do not want to discuss this with others. Others will take pride in telling stories of forebears and heroic efforts in settling, raising their families, service to the country in times of war, and conditions they had to bear to be accepted by others. However, others dismiss ethnicity as unimportant and prefer to blend in without specific notice. Still others actually take offence, "Why do you need to know?" Delicate subjects demand proper introductions and discovering ethnicity is one of these. Recall that some people would not like to uncover family history, or regard their own ignorance as a failing for not interacting better with parents or grandparents while they were living. Instead, ethnicity comes with a tinge of remorse, shame or blame. On the other hand, people can develop a late-blooming concern for what is threatened or endangered in their own personal lives. They hear that half the world's languages will be lost by 2100; they see this is similar to the threatened and endangered plants and animals issue.

 

 

Awareness of Ethnic Centers and Festivals

 

An ethnic cultural center has a certain importance due to a history of settlement or continued habitation, support to new arrivals, pride in a particular ethnicity, or efforts to reconvene scattered people who moved away from a settlement. Thus, museums and cultural centers are often current gathering places for people of a certain ethnicity. Interestingly, some have such centers in Florida or Arizona where retired people desire to gather among others of the same ethnic background, even if they originally lived in diverse places (e.g. Slovaks in Florida or Irish in Arizona). Occasional gatherings have importance in our mobile world where one in five Americans move every year. Homecomings, reunions, and festivals are examples of these periodic gatherings that most often occur in areas of former or existing concentration of these groups.

 

Many religious and civic groups celebrate ethnic and cultural roots as, for example, Greek festivals are associated with local Greek Orthodox churches or Italian festivals with a particular Catholic feast day. Often, religious statistics are reported for all persons of an ethnic group, some of whom are only remotely associated with the ethnic church of their youth or ancestors. At our beginning work we attended to Jewish groups (obtained from non-census data), mainly because some do not like to be identified with their lands of origin before migration to this country. Some are offended by our singling out special designation --though Jewish concentrations in California, New York, Florida, and major cities are often reported as part of Russian, German, Romanian, Lithuanian and other ethnic groupings. People are mobile and enter, drift off, or leave these religious groups through lack of participation, intermarriage, or conversion. We do not single out religious groups as such, except that groups designated "Am" or Pennsylvania Germans in the Census are generally Amish, Mennonite, or an associated religious grouping.2

 

Of importance in enhancing the ethnic patterns of groups are celebrations over periods of time. They celebrate their ancestry, culture or race in some way through festivals and family gatherings, and through support of museums and shrines. Note in more mobile days I attended German, Italian, Greek, Appalachian, Hispanic, and Slavic festivals, and Irish parades, gone to Black and Native American museums, and visited Wendish Lutheran, French Huguenot, Russian Orthodox, and Luxembourger, Italian, Hispanic, and Hungarian Catholic churches. But even in our highly diversified country a number of distinct ethnic locations exist, but it is hard to pinpoint those of greater interest when they are smothered by predominant ethnic groups.

 

We have tried in the 2010 maps to highlight about 200 of these centers and festivals with an interest in giving all some representation and yet knowing that recent migrants have not had the opportunity to create centers and times of celebration as have more settled ethnic groups. If a reader regards their favorite group as missing, please inform us, since later editions of this digital version can be easily amended.

 

 

Pride in Ethnicity and Being American

 

The U.S. census-taker or surveyor allows people to give their first and second ethnic choices (self-reporting). Some find this worrisome and even annoying even when guaranteed that individual identity of persons will not be available for commercial purposes. Often people respond quickly and may even give slightly different answers as to ethnicity if asked later. The total accumulation of vast amounts of national information makes for a comprehensive picture, which perhaps approximates a true picture by the law of averages. Granted, data collectors can make sampling errors, still most are conscientious and we have a relatively good approximation of an authentic American ethnic picture. Certainly the U.S. Census information from Georgia does not resemble that of Vermont; nor does the Texas ethnic picture resemble that of North Dakota's. The reporting with all its limits does present a relatively true composite picture for a given time.

Several decades ago an account appeared of an Irish-American infant who was raised by an Amish community and became part of it. This is a case of transferring to another ethnic group after birth and could occur through adoption, marriage, or even personal associations. These trans-ethnic occurrences are more common than at first glance. When people marry into another racial or ethnic group, the stronger and more enthusiastic party generally governs the attachment to a particular ethnic group.

 

We enjoy celebrating with others and thus become a little part of their ethnicity when we partake in others' good will and cheer. Is this a "melting pot" effect, or the American acceptance of the stew of ethnic variation? Tolerating diversity makes us more globally centered and breaks down the biases and stereotypes that are often associated with certain groups by overly closed clans and families. In becoming acquainted with diverse ethnic foods, dances, costumes, and celebrations we grow in the treasures of other cultures, we continue to be hospitable and we refuse to demand uniform conformity in thought patterns.

Ethnic pride fades with groups or through the years, and perhaps is replaced by specific "regional" ethnicity. Some people prefer to be called American instead of one or other standard ethnic category, especially if among the simple majority of our country with some roots in Colonial America. These numbers are part of a category that is present in large numbers in Appalachia, the Ozarks, and portions of the Southeast. Is this a lack of ethnic consciousness or an absence of a proper cultural category for response? While "Pennsylvania German" is one such ethnic grouping based in part on land of origin, Ozark or Appalachian people are forming a cultural unity from diverse backgrounds over several generations. Many from these regions declare themselves American or "United States" for ethnicity, but the numbers are not growing as fast as the rise of Hispanics and Asian Americans. The American designation speaks to lack of specific ethnicity but actually the birth rates of the groups tending in this direction are less than that of more pronounced ethnic and racial groups. (See Appendix 2).

 

 

Ethnic Amalgamation or Ethnic Diversification

 

The myth or fact of an ethnic melting pot ought to be considered in the light of America's changing ethnicity. Some hold a conformist view of a single bland culture with no differences in language, religion, culture, and even cuisine. For them uniformity is the key to a more perfect union. They forget the motto that we find on our money as part of the great seal of the United States is e pluribus unum (from many one). It is not better as Americans to abandon our federalism and its state powers and responsibilities for a single centralized government. Nor should we expect a single nationwide culture from which diverse ethnicity has vanished.

 

The "many" help give honor and dignity to the "oneness." Amazingly, it was a diversity of ethnic groups that made up the first unity of the colonies into a nation even though the rich Native American sense of democracy was overlooked, nor were African American slaves regarded as more than three-fifths of a person. Over time non-propertied white males, black males, women, Native Americans, and those 18-21 were allowed to vote. With time and with blood, sweat, and tears we are gradually becoming a more perfect union. More integration is still to come but still the American welcome mat extends to diverse racial and ethnic people.

The myth of "melting pot" is perhaps stronger in some parts of the nation than others. Those states that have higher "American" designations are more likely to expect a single ethnic class or white grouping for all citizens -- if that is even possible. However, lower birth rates among whites was evident in the 2010 Census with whites constituting 64% of the population on the whole but only 54% of those under 18 years of age. In the decade since the turn of the millennium, the American population climbed 10% to 309 million but minorities accounted for 92% of that growth. Hispanics swelled by 43% to 51 million, Asian Americans by the same rate of growth to 15 million, and African Americans increasing by 11% to 38 million. Many school districts now have schools where whites are in a minority.

Through intermarriage and mobility out from ethnic communities, some loss of identity occurs among that slower-growing white population. Older Colonial and post-Revolutionary War migratory groups from the British Isles and parts of continental Europe are not increasing to any marked degree. The Scottish and Scotch-Irish are present in most counties, but not in a plurality (first of several in number) in any one of them. German is still a plurality in half the counties but that is declining in this current decade. English have witnessed a sharp decline over the past forty years with a number being reported as "American."

 

While an amalgamation is occurring especially in older 17th and 18th century arriving groups, America has always had a fresh infusion of migrants, and thus emerging ethnic groups. In other words, diversification (mainly along racial lines) is a countercurrent to amalgamation. Recent large numbers of Asians and of Hispanics (of various racial backgrounds) add much to diversity in degrees not seen since the great southern and eastern European migrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

 

Amalgamation rates increase with higher mobility and intermarriage and this has occurred with greater frequency with distance from the major migration periods. Decline in amalgamation occurs with increased immigration and higher birth rates among minorities that tend to be ethnically recognized as distinct by language or race. Spanish, not German, is becoming America's second language but even here amalgamation occurs as the next generation is facile with English as primary American tongue. At this time, total general population rise through amalgamation is occurring at a slower rate than population rise through diverse groups (Hispanics, Asian, Native Americans and African Americans).

Amalgamation occurs through intermarriage and failure of new generations to identify with the ethnicity of their parents, for as third and further distant generations they have lost their roots. They prefer to forego their last name and make a hyphen with a spouse; they move to a suburb or another city and live in a mixed community of those wishing to be "Americans." But other factors are also happening. The diverse and newly arrived groups are growing in numbers and this deserves further reflection. Certainly, regional habits, practices, and cuisine become more diversified over time, though communication today allows for a blurring of boundaries and manner of speech among groups.

 

Patterns and Differences over Decades

 

The issue of amalgamation raises a deeper question verging on an academic exercise, namely patterns within states, regions or cities that hasten the "melting pot effect." Geographers encouraged us to construct multiple maps over time to show change and mobility -- and some of this melting effect. How rapidly are these changes occurring among and within ethnic groups in our mobile society? Midwestern rural ethnic enclaves along with urban ghettos have eroded over time. The total picture of change is incomplete, for more research needs to be done. The emerging answer is found in a variety of ethnic studies related to the history of various ethnic groups in this nation, or to migration (forced and otherwise) of Native American nations and tribes.

General observations as to changes over four decades of U.S. Census data (1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010) are listed here. Data gathering in the early 1980s occurred in pre-computer data recording days when paper files and books were stored in state data centers. The entire 1980 data for states as well as that of Census tracts of 25 major metropolitan areas were gleaned at the data center at Lexington's University of Kentucky. Later data was digitized and is far easier to access, analyze, and compare. Today national ethnic maps for 2000 and 2010 are readily available both on our own Website <earthhealing.info> and on a variety of others. Here are some general observations about major ethnic groups with plurality noted on state maps. For interesting historic details, a vast array of materials is available on the Internet:

 

Germanic Groups

 

Germans (code light blue, see Appendix 3) have traditionally been the leading ethnic group in America, even though this predominance is often a surprise to casual observers. In the 2010 Census almost fifty million Americans claimed German as their primary ethnic group (about the same number as in 1980); these reside in a broad Germanic band from Pennsylvania to the Pacific. Early on, German vied with English as the primary group in what became the United States. Had German influence at the time of the Constitution been greater, German would have become American's principal language or co-language. In the 19th century sizeable rural western Midwest surface areas were primarily inhabited by Germans from Russia;3 the designation today is not claimed by many inhabitants who call themselves "German," and thus these areas were excluded from 2010 maps. A higher German plurality is noted in the 1990 Census most likely due to its higher placement on the self-reporting forms.4 For instance, compare Jasper County, Iowa for the four decades.

 

Swiss people (also light blue) are of Germanic, French, or Italian origin with concentrations in several states of the Midwest, but not sufficient for a plurality in those states. They are designated in the 2000 maps by the letter "Z" (see Appendix 4 for Ethnic Letter Key). Interestingly, those with even partial Swiss ethnicity are still regarded as Swiss citizens. Prior to the First World War, those claiming to be Austrian as a land of origin could have been from Slavic and other origins. Alsatians often were grouped as Germans or French depending on time of arrival and individual declaration.

 

Dutch (code dark brown) predominate in southwest Minnesota, several counties in central Iowa, parts of eastern Wisconsin, and most heavily in west central Michigan. The older Dutch settlements from Colonial times in the Mid-Atlantic regions have somewhat faded even though the pronounced Dutch cultural marks are still visible.

 

Belgians settled during the 19th century mostly in the Midwest with concentrations in Wisconsin near Green Bay, as well as in northwestern Illinois (both areas are marked) and in northern Indiana. These still persist in both rural and nearby urban areas.

 

Luxembourgers arrived in smaller numbers but also have a keen sense of ethnic consciousness as do the other Lowlanders. Significant settlements are found in Iowa and Wisconsin.

 

Celtic Groups

 

Irish (dark green color) is a major grouping in our country and generally second to Germans, though now being exceeded by Hispanics. Irish are found in significant numbers in all states but especially in New England and New York. Besides the northeastern states from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, counties with Irish pluralities are not numerous but do crop up in surprising places such as the Ozarks, Appalachia, and Montana. The category generally refers to those whose ancestors came from Ireland but includes some who are more precisely "Scotch-Irish."

 

Scottish people are also highly dispersed throughout the United States but are not nearly as numerous as the Irish and do not predominate in any county. They are closely related to the "Scotch-Irish," who emigrated from Scotland to Ireland prior to coming to America.

Welsh (olive green) is a smaller ethnic group;5 Welsh people clustered near eastern (especially Pennsylvania) and western mining areas and parts of the rural Midwest and have a surprising near plurality concentration in southern Idaho.

 

English

 

English (code tan) in the 1980 Census was still a strong contender for first place with Germans, but this abruptly changed by the 1990 Census when the rise of "American" as a designation became more pronounced in Appalachia and certain parts of our country. The fading of English was not due to population decline (though birth rates have been lower for many white groups); perhaps it was due to the placing of English in a top position on self-reporting Census forms in 1980 (49.6 million English) in contrast to its placement in 1990 (32.7 million English).4

French and Italian Groups

 

French (light green) as designated on these maps include French Canadian, especially in New England, as well as Cajun, especially in Louisiana and nearby Gulf states. The French are uniformly scattered as a non-plurality through the country but do have strong concentrations in mainly northern New England states as well as New York, as well as plurality in some Upper Michigan counties. More often French are actually French from Canada, though there is a strong Huguenot strain of ancestry dating to Colonial times due to migration directly from Europe. Alsatians of the 19th century migrations identify as French.

 

Italians (code purple) are quite strong as an ethnic group in the lower New Englands, New York, and New Jersey and likewise extend into Pennsylvania and Ohio. Some 51 "Little Italy" sites are designated mostly in the Northeast and the Midwest, with several also in California in three major cities. None of the counties of the West had a plurality of Italians with the exception of southern Colorado.

Northern Europeans

 

Scandinavians (code Plum) include mainly Norwegians (with several plurality counties when taken singly) along with Swedes, Danes, and Icelanders and those who designate themselves as simply Scandinavians; this makes computations more difficult. However, such totals clarify a given county's consciousness of its ethnicity.

 

Finnish people are also Northern Europeans who are a strong contingent in upper Michigan and are found in strong numbers in a number of Midwestern Scandinavian counties. Many Finns and Scandinavians have dispersed among various Metropolitan areas and retirees have moved to Florida.

 

Baltics (Lithuanians, Latvians, and some Estonians) are Baltic people found generally in northeastern and Midwestern urban areas, with Chicago being their center. In the 19th century Lithuanians were drawn to mining operations in Pennsylvania and elsewhere.

 

Slavic and Eastern European Groups

 

Polish (code peach for all Slavic group) is the most populous with areas marked "P," Czech "Cz", Ukrainian "U", and Russian "R" with the latter including sizeable numbers of Jewish people (sub-designated in earlier metropolitan maps from non-U.S. Census data sources). Jewish ancestry is also listed within Polish, German, Hungarian, and Lithuanian data. Polish is a plurality in a few counties mainly in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Nebraska, and Wisconsin.

 

Czechs are predominant in several counties or portions in Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and central Texas, but are losing plurality over time as comparing maps will show.

 

Ukrainians generally migrated to eastern and Midwestern areas but Billings County in North Dakota had a plurality in 1980.

Slovaks, Slovenes, and Serbs were more urban-oriented and found in eastern and Midwestern cities. Croatians have been more maritime-oriented and found in southern California and elsewhere.

 

Bosnians arrived in large numbers after the breakup of Yugoslavia.

 

Wendish people are concentrated in Lee County, Texas.

 

Hungarians and Romanians (though non-Slavic) generally settled in Northeast and Great Lakes urban areas with dispersal.

Mediterranean & Middle East

 

Greeks are found in many urban areas of the East but also in much of the urban United States, though with no county plurality. Maltese are co-residents with Greeks in the New York city area. Albanians are generally found on the eastern seaboard with a focal point in the New York City metropolitan area. Several New England states along with New York list Albanians. Increasing numbers of Middle Easterners are coming along with Turkic groups:

Arabs, Chaldeans, and Assyrians to the Detroit metropolitan areas as well as other Eastern states and Texas and California. Arrivals have been heavier from Iraq since the Gulf wars;

Turkish and Central Asian people (e.g., Afghans) to the New York/New Jersey areas and other urban areas especially since 1990;

Armenians and Persians are generally from previous migrations in the early 20th century, the former concentrating in the East and the latter in California but with some dispersal over time.

 

Iberian Groups

 

Hispanics (code pink and red for 50% or more) are definitely making a mark on the ethnic maps in a comparison of the four decades. It is like a welcoming "mushroom cloud from Mexico" in the western part of the country and a states-by-state viewing from California to Texas and up to Washington will show this in the west. Some other mapmakers divide Hispanics into Mexicans in the West, Cubans in Florida, and Puerto Ricans in New York, and Salvadorians into the Mid-Atlantic region. However, movement of these sub-category Hispanics is making this less precise with large number of Central and South Americans on the West Coast. Furthermore, in areas of the East Coast and Great Lakes composite Hispanics constitute a plurality in a surprising number of counties in 2010, including those in the Chicago metropolitan area. By 2010 the majority of the 254 counties of Texas that were formerly a plurality of German or mixed German/English are now Hispanic.

 

Portuguese (code steel gray) can be called Latinos as well and are found in large numbers in the southern New England states, in Mid-Atlantic states, and in central California and Hawaii. Originally Portuguese-speaking Cape Verdeans, Azoreans, and Brazilians are also found especially in the southern New England states and in the latter case in New Jersey.

 

Basques come from Spain, are few in number, have a strong ethnic consciousness, and are concentrated in the West.6

 

Racial Groups

 

African Americans (code gold or heavy gold for over 50% in a county) are a major American grouping. Racial data reflect mainly this group and are self-identified or by others as "Blacks," even with mixed racial origins. African Americans are represented in every state but show a strong plurality in a vast strip of land starting in Eastern Virginia and going through the Deep South to eastern Texas. This group includes all descendants of early deportation from Africa prior to the abolition of the slave trade. A minor sub-category designating recent arrivals from parts of Sub-Saharan Africa are indicated on the 2000 maps as "Af." The latter groups generally appear in major urban metropolitan areas. "Hispanic" populations include a minority of those who are racially black (some Dominicans and African Americans from Spanish-speaking Caribbean areas); these are more or less concentrated in the New York City metropolitan area and parts of the East Coast.

 

Asian Americans (code blue-green) are also a composite grouping of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Indo-Americans, and others. The only state with a plurality is Hawaii, and a number of counties (San Francisco and Santa Clara) along with ones in Virginia, New Jersey, and the state of Washington now have pluralities of Asian Americans taken as a composite group. As an ethnic group they are actually the fastest growing in our country. In some metropolitan areas the substantial sub-groups (Chinese, Japanese, etc.) are indicated based on available racial data (see Appendix 5).

 

Native Americans (code yellow and dark yellow where 50% or more of the county) are listed according to the decennial Census figures for the entire grouping. Many Native Americans from various tribes and nations show7 pride in ancestry especially in the past half century. Native Alaskans are included in this grouping. In some areas where reservations (I.R.) comprise a portion of the county and are not contiguous with county boundaries, the Native American plurality of the county and reservation boundaries are marked (see Appendix 6).8

 

Oceanics and Hawaiians comprise the smallest racial grouping and these are found for the greater part of Hawaii and in California, with representation in other states.9

 

 

 

ALABAMA

The Heart of Dixie is also the buckle of the African American belt that extends from the Atlantic Coast to Texas. Much like its neighboring states, Alabama has a major African American population comprising over one-quarter of the residents. This group predominates in the central and southern rural areas as well as in the Birmingham, Montgomery, and Mobile urban areas.

 

Alabama is an American state with over one-sixth of its population listing "American" or "United States" as their primary ethnic choice. The phenomenon actually means a confusion or erosion in ethnicity, or perhaps a desire to separate from a minority that is now present in the given area. The specified white population follows the Southern pattern of English, German, Irish, Scotch, and Scotch-Irish with far lower representations of other groups such as the French in the south and Italians, Greeks, Slavs, and Dutch in urban centers. The northern counties have similar southern Appalachian and low African American populations as do the immediate surrounding states.

 

Asian Americans either considered alone or "in combination with others" (a Census designation for mixed ethnicity) increased dramatically from 39,000 to 67,000 in the first decade of the 21st century; these are principally found in urban and academic areas as well as around Huntsville in the north.

 

Native Americans are not numerous and are scattered through the state but with sizeable concentrations in Washington, Escambia, and Lawrence Counties. The state has a federally recognized reservation of Creeks in Escambia County and seven small state-recognized places. For Alabama, the ethnic choice features the southeastern Native Americans who called this territory home long before the arrival of Europeans. The Southeast originally included the "five civilized tribes" (Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles) of which Alabama was the geographic center (see Oklahoma for museum dedicated to them). Local museums and cultural centers celebrate Indian roots.

 

* Cherokee County Historical Museum

101 East Main Street

Centre, Al 35960

(256) 927-7835; www.museumatcentre.com

 

Hispanics decreased from 1980 to 1990 and then increased by 2000 to 76,000; there was a doubling to 186,000 in 2010, the increase of 145% is the second highest in the nation just behind South Carolina. In recent years with a sudden rise from 1.7 to almost 4% of population has precipitated some restrictive measures against illegal immigrants in this state along with those of Arizona. Many Hispanics were attracted to seasonal agricultural work and public service jobs that others refused to undertake. By 2010, in Dekalb and Franklin Counties Hispanics are of equal number as those called "American." A number of other counties with large numbers of Hispanics include Marshall and Jefferson Counties.

 

 

 

ALASKA

 

The Great Northern State is over twice the size of Texas and yet this highly scenic and rugged state is very sparsely populated. Alaska can be roughly divided into a northern and western area in which Alaskan Natives predominate and a southern and southeastern coastal region with a mixed population coming mainly from the lower 48 states. The military installations and the petroleum-producing facilities have brought people of various ethnic backgrounds.

 

Anchorage has over 40% of the total Alaskan population (2010) and resembles in ethnic composition the urban populations of the lower Northwestern states. Besides Native Alaskans, Asian Americans, African Americans and some Pacific Islanders, one can find 60% of the state's Hispanic population and sizeable numbers of other ethnic groups: German, English, Irish, Scandinavian (mainly Norwegian and Swedish), Italian, French, and Scottish with smaller numbers of Dutch, Polish and others.

 

In 2010, the Alaskan Natives (Aleut, Eskimos, Tinsits and other Native Americans), whether considered alone or in combination with others, number 138,000; these inhabit the greater Alaskan land mass but comprise only 16% of the total population. Almost half of all the listed federally recognized tribes and units (listed by the National Conference of State Legislatures) constitute Alaskan native villages. In some of the Census districts one may note, native peoples comprise 90% or more of the population.

* Totem Heritage Center

601 Deermont Street

Ketchikan, AK 99901

(907) 225-5900

www.city.ketchikan.ak.us/departments/museums/

 

In 2010, about 5.5% of the total Alaskan population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Almost the same number (38,000) is Asian Americans who are generally found in the southern coastal arc. African Americans have a similar pattern of residence with about 33,000 inhabitants or 4% of the population.

 

Note: In Alaska, Census districts do not necessarily follow the same boundary lines as the standard "boroughs" found in Alaska, which resemble counties in other states. This makes designating areas a little more problematic.

 

 

 

ARIZONA

 

The Grand Canyon State is a major retirement destination that attempts to beat its brutal summer heat through air conditioning. The rapidly expanding population consists of many ethic groups: German, English, Irish, Italian, Polish, Swedish, French, Scottish, Dutch, Norwegian, Russian, Welsh, Czech and people from the Middle East (Armenian, Arabic, Greek and others). These are generally second or third generation Americans in contrast to foreign-born immigrants who reside in eastern and coastal urban America.

 

Anglo or English-speaking white Americans is a designated term found in areas of heavy Hispanic and minority concentrations. Retired white people may tend to an amalgam "Anglo" grouping.

 

* Arizona Historical Society (also Flagstaff, Tempe, and Yuma)

949 East Second Street

Tucson, AZ 85719

(520) 628-5774; www.arizonahistoricalsociety.org

Irish Americans in the Southwest and elsewhere in America often are hesitant to be identified with "Anglo" from a cultural antagonism to British dominance in the previous centuries, and may prefer their own cultural groups for continued fraternity.

 

* The Irish Cultural Center

1106 North Central Avenue

Phoenix, AZ 85004

(602) 258-0109; www.azirish.org

Hispanics have increased rapidly through direct migration from Mexico and Central America, and have advanced from one-sixth of the population in 1980, to over one-quarter in 2000, and to 29.1% or 1,900,000 people in 2010.

 

* Arizona Latino Arts & Cultural Center

147 East Adams Street

Phoenix, AZ 85004

(602) 254-9817; www.alacaz.org

 

Arizona with 300,000 Native Americans can be called the Western American Indian State. In contrast to Oklahoma being the crucible of forced migration of Eastern and Plains Indians in the 19th century, Arizona's native population has been here for a millennia. The Navajo and Hopi are in the northeastern portion with other tribes scattered throughout parts of the state in reservations and in urban areas: Yuma, Papago (the Tohono O'Odham Nation), Hualapai, Paiute, Pima, and Western Apache. Arizona has more reservation land (23 million acres) than any state.

* Phoenix Indian Center (Also Prescott)

4520 North Central Ave, Suite 250

Phoenix, AZ 85012

(602) 264-6768; www.phxindcenter.org

 

Asian Americans doubled in the first decade of this century from 92,000 to 177,000 in 2010, and they are concentrated in Phoenix and Tucson.

A quarter-of-a-million African Americans are concentrated in the two major urban areas.

 

 

 

ARKANSAS

 

Arkansas can be regarded as an ethnic border state being the western end of the Appalachian belt. In the northwest corner, Arkansas resembles the states further west. But the diagonal line running from Mississippi County in the northeast to Little River County in the southwest resembles the traditional African American belt. Even though African Americans are a predominant group, Arkansas contains less than half the percentage (16%) of neighboring Mississippi. However, Crittenden, St. Francis, Lee, Phillips, and Chicot (delta) Counties have over fifty percent African Americans. The state capital of Little Rock has a heavy concentration of over one-third as well, along with its ethnically diverse white population of residents of Polish, Italian, French, Scottish, and Dutch ancestry.

 

Arkansas may be called the Ozark State though the ethnic composition of the northern half of the state resembles the population of Tennessee and Kentucky, that is, "American" along with English, German, and Irish/Scotch-Irish.

 

One may call the Ozark highlands that extend into Missouri as home to a distinct sub-ethnic or emerging ethnic group. Like Appalachians further to the East but ethnically closely related, those Ozark folks have very distinct traits, songs, foods, and other refinements of their region, and cherish them highly.

 

* Ozark Folk Center

Ozark Folk Center State Park

1032 Park Avenue

Mountain View, AR 72560-6008

(870) 269-3051

www.ozarkfolkcenter.com

 

Arkansas contains 22,000 Native Americans, who are well dispersed, with the strongest showing in northwestern counties (Benton, Crawford, Washington, and Sebastian) bordering heavily Native American Oklahoma.

 

The Asian American population of the state has increased dramatically from 7,000 in 1980, to 12,500 in 1990, to 20,000 in 2000, and then to 36,000 in 2010. These are found throughout the state but more so in Pulaski and Sebastian Counties.

 

Hispanics show the same immense growth rate as found elsewhere in the South, from 18,000 in 1980, to 20,000 in 1990, to four times that amount or 87,000 at the turn of the century; since then the population has doubled again to 186,000 by 2010. They live in the western portion of the state with predominance in Benton, Carroll, Sebastian, Sevier, and Washington Counties and large contingents in others including Pulaski County.

 

 

 

CALIFORNIA

 

The Golden State with over 37 million people is more a nation unto itself rather than merely one of the United States. Its relatively small number of counties means that ethnic data is smothered by the predominant Hispanic concentration. California has more English, Scottish, Hispanics, Asian Americans, Portuguese, Dutch, and Danish than any other state. It can be ethnically designated as the Persian, Filipino, Chinese, Oceanic, Korean, or Japanese American State. Italians and Portuguese are quite numerous in central California. Basques are present in the northeast as well a seafaring Croatians in San Pedro and Danes in Solvang. San Diego has a "Little Italy."

 

* Croatian Cultural Center

510 West 7th Street

San Pedro, CA 90731

(310) 833-0103; www.croatianculture.org

 

* Elverhoj Museum of History & Art

1624 Elvehoy Way

Solvang, CA 93464

(805) 686-1211; www.elverhoj.org

 

* Italian Cultural Center

1669 Columbia Street

San Diego, CA

(619) 237-0601; www.icc-sd.org

 

Migrants from both Mexico and the rest of Latin America have continued the dramatic Hispanic population increases witnessed in many other states, expanding in California from 4.5 million in 1980 to 7.7 million in 1990 and almost 11 million in 2000. This approaches one-third of California's total population and 45% of Los Angeles County's. The Central Valley and northern California are becoming strongly Hispanic.

 

* El Museo Mexicano

Fort Mason Center Building D

San Francisco, CA 94123

(415) 202-9799; www.mexicanmuseum.org

 

Over one-third of a million Native Americans live both in major urban areas and in or near the 76 reservations located throughout the state; these are more numerous in San Diego County, but are also in Riverside and in northern Modoc, Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties. One-quarter of reservations are identified.

 

* Agua Caliente Cultural Museum (NA)

219 South Palm Canyon Drive

Palm Springs, CA 92262

(760) 778-1079; www.accmuseum.org

 

* Heritage of the Americas Museum

12110 Cuyamaca College Drive West

El Cajon, CA 92019; www.cuyamaca.net/museum

California has one-third of all Asian Americans in the United States, climbing from 1,250,000 in 1980 to 2,850,000 in 1990 and then to 3,700,000 in 2000, and to nearly 5,000,000 in 2010. Los Angeles County (larger than some states) has one-and-a-third million. One-third of San Francisco's population, or a quarter of a million, is Asian and thus the group with plurality; so is Santa Clara County with over one half-million Asian Americans as well as Alameda County with nearly 400,000 of that group; populous San Diego has one-third of a million Asian Americans. Chinatown in San Francisco is the largest such Chinese concentration in America and goes back to the 1830s, first composed of farm laborers, then with gold rush people, and then with railroad hands. From humble beginnings came Chinese restaurants and other businesses. Currently Chinese immigrants gravitate to urban areas and research centers.

 

* Chinese Historical Society of America

965 Clay Street

San Francisco, CA 94108

(415) 391-1188; www.chsa.org

 

* Japanese American National Museum

369 East 1st Street

Los Angeles, CA 90012

(213) 425-0414; www.janm.org

 

* Korean American Museum

3780 Wilshire Boulevard # 220

Los Angeles, CA 90010

(213) 388-4229; www.kamuseum.org

 

* Thai Cultural Center of the San Francisco Bay Area

1911 Russell Street

Berkeley, CA 94703; www.me.com/viranda/Thai

 

* Vietnamese Cultural Center

2849 South White Road

San Jose, CA 95148

 

The highly successful and culturally conscious Persians from Iran are most numerous in California.

 

* Persian Cultural Center

9265 Dowdy Drive #105

San Diego, CA 92126; www.pccsd.org

African American numbers have held steady in California in the first decade of this century and account for two-and-a-quarter million. Almost 40% of these are found in Los Angeles County.

 

* Ethiopian Community and Cultural Center

6116 Telegraph Avenue

Oakland, CA 94609

(510) 268-4770; www.ethiopianccc.org

Cornish Americans are few as declared first ancestry, but an estimated two million Americans have Cornish ancestry. These are often classified as British and thus are overlooked as an ethnic group. Cornish miners came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in the 19th century and then followed the Gold Rush to California. Green Valley (Nevada County) was at one time 60% Cornish and celebrates its annual Kernewek Lowender, the world's largest Cornish Festival.

 

-- Other --

* Imperial County Historical Society (Anglo/English)

373 East Aten Road

Imperial, CA 92251

(760) 352-116

 

* Scandinavian Cultural Center

240 Plymouth Street

Santa Cruz, CA 95060

(831) 425-9725; www.scc-santacruz.org

 

* Armenian Community of Hollywood

1203 N. Vermont Ave.

Los Angeles, CA 90029-1703

(323) 663-4148; www.littlearmenia.com

 

* St. Peter Chaldean Cathedral

1627 Jamacha Way

El Cajon, CA 92019

(619) 579-7913

 

* Dia de Portugal (numerous festivals)

P.O. Box 18277

San Jose, CA 95158-8277

www.diadeportugalca.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COLORADO

 

The Centennial State (established in 1876) has been a Germanic state now becoming Hispanic. In recent decades, Colorado has become somewhat ethnically diverse due to the rapidly expanding population in the Denver metropolitan area including Jefferson, Adams, Douglas, and Arapahoe Counties (almost half the total state population) and in Boulder County. In the Denver area, one finds a wide variety of ethnic groups: Germans, English, Irish, Italian, Dutch, Scandinavian, Slavic, Scottish, Welsh, and Austrian people. Both El Paso County (Colorado Springs) and Pueblo County (Pueblo) share in this growing diversity. Western Colorado is sparsely populated with Germans, English, Irish, and Americans.

 

Much of Colorado outside of the corridors of Interstate-25 and Interstate-70 is sparsely settled, with many picturesque mountains in the western half of the state. When comparing the sequence of maps for the various decades one can observe how Colorado is becoming more Hispanic. Over one million Hispanics (one-fifth of the total population) reside in counties throughout the state, though still heavily concentrated in the central and southern portions of Colorado.

 

* Cesar Chavez Cultural Center

1410 20th Street

Greeley, CO 80639

(970) 351-2424; www.unco.edu/cccc/

 

Native Americans (56,000) do not predominate in any county, but two Ute reservations are in the southeastern corner of the state and extend into neighboring states. The Native American tribes or nations figure strongly into the history of the West as is found in local museums and other centers.

 

* El Pueblo History Museum

301 North Union

Pueblo, CO 81003

(719) 583-0453; www.historycolorado.org/museums

 

A little over 200,000 African Americans account for 4% of the total state population and are principally in the large cities.

 

A small total number of Asian Americans now numbering 139,000 in 2010, but up from 96,000 in 2000, are more numerous in suburban Denver and in Boulder and other educational and research centers.

 

Anglo/English are not a listed category as such but frequently when contrasted with minorities (Hispanics, Asians, Africans, and Native Americans), this becomes an amalgam of European and some Middle East white people. They can be grouped as a major contingent of the "pioneers" migrating to and establishing roots in this state.

* Centennial Village Museum

1475 A Street (at Island Grove Park)

Greeley, CO 80631

(970) 350-9220; www.greeleygov.com

 

 

 

 

 

CONNECTICUT

 

The Constitution or Nutmeg State is witnessing its heavy white composition weaken in recent years to three-quarters of the population. Connecticut's racial composition is still represented by older Yankee groups such as the English, Scottish, Dutch, and Welsh. The state, together with its other southern New England neighbors, experienced a rapid diversification of population when becoming a major industrial center in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Among these immigrant groups were the predominant ethnic one making this the Italian State.

 

* Italian Center of Stamford

1620 Newfield Avenue

Stamford, CN 06905

(203) 322-6941; www.italiancenter.org

 

Irish emigrated in large numbers during the industrial period. Likewise French Canadians came southward to work in the factories. Other arrivals in that period include Polish and other Slavic groups (Russians, Ukrainians, Czechs, Slovaks, and Yugoslavs among others), Scandinavians, Baltics, Greeks and other Middle Eastern groups, Romanians, Portuguese, and Hungarians. Currently, the Connecticut southwest is a New York metropolitan bedroom community.

 

Hispanics and Latinos including Puerto Ricans, Cubans and others have increased rapidly in recent years and comprise 480,000 (2010), up from 320,000 in one decade and comprising 13.4% of total population. In fact, two (Hartford and Fairfield) of the eight counties are now predominantly Hispanic, having replaced Italian.

The non-white quarter of the population are generally late arrivals though African Americans (currently one-tenth of the population) were present in colonial times. This grouping went from 310,000 in 2000 to 362,000 ten years later.

 

Asian Americans, including a wide variety of sub-groups, are found in many urban technical and academic areas, and rose from 82,000 in 2000 to 136,000 in 2010, or about 4% of total population. The 2010 Census indicates about 11,000 Native Americans, with a significant concentration in New London County where four Paugussett and Pequot Indian Reservations are located.

 

* Mashantucket Pequot Museum

110 Pequot Trail

Mashantucket, CN 06338

(860) 396-6800; www.pequotmuseum.org

Mixed: African American, Irish, Italian, Jewish, and Ukrainian. Quite often the mixture of ethnic groups does not of itself lead to amalgamation, but rather the desire to celebrate diversity. This is pride in holding on to a treasure of ethnic diversity, a struggle to save an endangered species.

 

* Ethnic Heritage Center

270 Fitch Street, Building #1

New Haven, CN 06515

(203) 392-6126; www.southernct.edu

 

 

 

 

DELAWARE

 

The First State is truly a border state, with its large northern city of Wilmington resembling the ethnic diversity of the upper Atlantic coast, and its rural southern portion similar to that of the Tidewater states immediately to the south and east.

The predominant group (192,000 in 2010) is African American as is in neighboring Maryland; this group comprises 21.4% of the population.

 

Hispanics increased rapidly in a decade from about 5% in 2000 to 8.2% (73,000) of the population in 2010.

 

In ten years Asian Americans increased from 16,000 to 28,500 in 2010.

 

Some 4,000 Native Americans are found with one state recognized Indian reservation for the Lenape tribe in central Kent County. At the time of the first white settlements, the Nanticokes inhabited the southern part of Delaware with tribal headquaters today in Bridgeton, New Jersey.

 

The white population includes a range of diversity as found in neighboring states with its variety of Irish, Italians, English, Germans, Irish, Italians, French, Polish, Greeks and others. Delaware was first colonized for a short time in the 17th Century by Swedes and then by Dutch who imprinted the cultural landscape.

 

* Zwaanendael Museum

102 Kings Highway at Savannah Road

Lewes, DE 19958

(302) 545-1148

http://history.delaware.gov/museums/zm/zm_main.shtml

 

 

 

 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

 

Our nation's capital can be considered to be the heart of a metropolitan area that includes parts of Maryland and northern Virginia (see Maryland map). The District's population has actually been declining from over 700,000 a few decades ago to 572,000 in the 2000 and then back up to 602,000 in the 2010 Census.

 

African Americans alone or in combination dropped from 350,000 in 2000 to 314,000 (52.2%) in 2010.

Hispanics, especially Central Americans, have increased from 45,000 (7.9%) in 2000 to 55,000 (9.1%) in 2010.

 

Asian Americans alone and in combination went from 18,000 in one decade to 27,000 (4.5%).

 

Though Native Americans only number a few thousand DC residents, still the District is the appropriate place to locate the major museum featuring all the various Native American tribes or nations within the confines of our country.

 

* Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian

4th and Independence Ave., SW

Washington, DC 20026

(202) 633-7000

 

In the District are also Irish, German, English, Middle Eastern, Italian, Scottish, French, Slavic (mainly Polish and Russian), Scandinavian and Greek people, along with a host of others, generally associated with governmental operations. It is fitting that this is the center of America's collective culture.

 

* American Folklife Center

101 Independence Ave., SE

Washington, DC 20540-4610

www.loc.gov/folklife

 

* Washington Sangerbund

2434 Wisconsin Ave., NW

Washington, DC 20007

(202) 310-4691; www.saengerbund.org

 

 

 

 

FLORIDA

 

The Sunshine State mirrors the national ethnic composition. However, Florida's northern panhandle resembles patterns of the neighboring Deep South with heavy African American concentrations. In the main peninsula, German is more prevalent along with a mix of diverse ethnic groups, with increasing Hispanic numbers from Miami to points north. The various urban areas along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts have a rich diversity of ethnic groups besides the German, Irish, and English: Italian, Slavic (especially Russian and Polish), French, Scandinavian, Greek, and other Middle Eastern, Hungarian and other Eastern European, Welsh, and Dutch. This diversity exists all along the coasts and interiors except the panhandle; it includes winter second-home French Canadians on the Atlantic and visitors from Ontario on the Gulf Coast.

 

African Americans number 3,000,000 in 2010 and reside in various parts of the state, and these are especially predominant in the Panhandle region as an extension of Deep South patterns.

 

The almost one-half million Asian Americans are concentrated in the most urban counties (Broward, Miami-Dade, Orange, Duval and Hillsborough).

 

Native Americans numbering 71,000 in 2010 are highly dispersed, though reservations for the Seminoles and Miccosukee exist in the Everglades in the southern portion of the state.

Hispanics, numbering 4,223,000 in 2010, account for one-quarter of the total state population and thus the predominant ethnic group. The growing Latino population has increased from 858,000 and doubled in 1980 to 1,572,000, and again to 2,700,000 in 2000, and then again to this total. Miami-Dade County, which is now 65% Hispanic, is home to 40% of Florida's Hispanics. The many immigrants from across the straits make this the Cuban State.

 

Other parts of Latin America are also represented and thus Florida could be termed ethnically the Caribbean State or the Haitian State.

* Little Haiti Cultural Center

212 Northeast 59th Terrace

Miami, FL 33137

(305) 960-2969; www.miamigov.com

 

* Cuban American National Council

1223 Southwest 4th Street

Miami, FL 33135-2407

(305) 642-3484

 

* Old Spanish Quarter

St. Augustine, FL

 

* Mission San Luis

2020 West Mission Road

Tallahassee, FL 32304

(850) 487-3711; www.missionsanluis.org

 

 

 

Others

 

Florida attracts people from various climates and temperaments as a major retirement destination, and so one finds ethnic groups originating from milder climates seeking to winter and often remain in Florida such as German, Italian, Jewish, Portuguese, Slovak, and Swedish residents and retirees.

 

* American Finnish Community Club

908 Lehto Lane

Lake Worth, FL 33461

 

* American German Club of Palm Beaches

5111 Latana Road

Lake Worth, FL 33463

(561) 967-6464; www.americangermanclub.org

 

* Heritage Museum: The Greek Community of Tarpon Springs

P.O. Box 5004

Tarpon Springs, FL 34688

(727) 942-5605; www.tarponarts.org

 

* Irish-American Society

1314 20th Street

Vero Beach, FL 32960

(772) 569-1460

 

* Italian Cultural Society of Naples

1100 Fifth Avenue South, Suite 201

Naples, FL 34102

(239) 434-3323; www.italianculturalsociety.com

 

* Jewish Museum of Florida

301 Washington Avenue

Miami Beach, FL 33139

(305) 672-5044; www.jmof.fiu.edu

 

* The American Institute of Polish Culture

1440 79th Street Causeway, Suite 117

Miami, FL 33141

(305) 864-2349; www.ampolinstitute.org

* Portuguese American Cultural Center

1200 Palm Harbor Parkway

Palm Coast, FL 32137

(386) 446-3910; www.palmcoastportugueseclub.com

 

* The Slovak Garden: Slovak Cultural Center Museum & Library

3110 Howell Branch Road

Winter Park, Florida 32792

* Museum of Seminole County (Near original Swedish Settlement)

300 Bush Boulevard

Sanford, FL 32773

(407) 665-2489; www.seminolecountyfl.gov

 

 

 

 

GEORGIA

 

Rural Georgia, the Peach State, is part of the Southern Black belt with 31.5% (3 million) of the total state population being African American in 2010. These African Americans are dispersed throughout the state with higher representations in the central and southern rural portions as well as in the urban areas of Atlanta (Fulton County is 45% African American), Columbia, and Savannah.

 

* Tubman African American Museum

340 Walnut Street

Macon, GA 31201

(478) 743-9063; www.tubmanmuseum.com

 

The white population follows the same pattern as neighboring states with a strong "American" representation as well as English, Germans, and Irish/Scotch-Irish. The northern portion resembles the Appalachian counties of the neighboring states of Tennessee and Alabama. The large rapidly increasing Atlanta metropolitan area has a rich diversity of ethnic groups ranging from Germans to Irish, French, Scandinavian, Slavic and Middle East representations. Clark County (Athens) has a diverse racial population, being an academic center. Savannah has a famous Irish festival each winter.

* St. Marys, Georgia

Old English settlement

 

* German Cultural Center Atlanta

1197 Peachtree Street

Atlanta, GA 30361

(404) 892-2388; www.goethe.de

 

* Savannah Irish Festival

301 West Ogelthorpe Ave.

Savannah, GA 31401

(912) 665-2557; www.savannahirish.org

 

* The Breman Jewish Heritage & Holocaust Museum

1440 Spring Street, NW

Atlanta, GA 30309

(678) 222-3700; www.thebreman.org

Like other states, Georgia attracts Hispanics, who now comprise almost 9% of the total state population and predominate in four counties. Increases are dramatic: from 61,000 Hispanics in 1980, to 109,000 in 1990, to 435,000 in 2000, and doubling again to 854,000 in 2010. Gwinnett (20% of Hispanics), Fulton, and Dekalb Counties have large numbers.

In 2010 a majority of Asian Americans of 314,000 (3.2% of the total population) are in Atlanta and immediately surrounding counties with concentrations at other academic centers.

The 32,000 (2010) Native Americans who reside throughout Georgia have no state reservations; still Georgia has been home to the Muskogee and Hitchiti tribes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAWAII

 

The Aloha State stands apart from the rest of the United States both in distance (a thousand miles out in the Pacific) and in ethnic composition. While it is truly the native Hawaiian State, it might equally bear the title of the Asian American one, since so much of the population is composed of people from Asia (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Thai, and others) as well as people from the other Pacific Islands such as the Samoans. Hawaii is the only state where the majority of the population is Asian American. Native Hawaiian people (about 10% of the inhabitants) have been outdistanced in the past century by mainland Asian immigrants and their descendants, who number alone or in combination 57% of the state's total population.

Besides those listed as Americans, the white residents (less than a quarter of the total population) are comprised of Germans and English with the third largest ethnic group being the Portuguese. There are also Irish, Italian, Slavic (mainly Polish), Scottish and Scandinavian inhabitants, mainly living in Honolulu County (Oahu Island), where almost three-quarters of the Island's population is concentrated.

 

In the Honolulu area where Asians predominate one finds a diversity of other groups including 121,000 Hispanics and Latinos or about 9% of the population, whereas in 2000 there were 88,000.

 

In 2010, African Americans number 38,000 alone or in combination.

 

American Indians alone or in combination number 33,000 in 2010.

 

The Native Hawaiian population, though a minority now in state population, has grown in ethnic consciousness in recent years and is making great efforts to preserve its identity and to counter certain stereotypes with positive alternatives.

 

* Kauai Museum

4428 Rice Street

Lihu'e, Haiwai'i 96766

(808) 245-6931; www.kauaimuseum.org

 

* Hawaii's Plantation Village

94-695 Waipahu Street

Waipahu, HI 96797

(808) 677-0110; www.hawaiiplantationvillage.org

 

 

 

IDAHO

 

The Gem State is rather sparsely populated except in the Snake River Valley. Here one finds the great majority of the Idaho white people (90% of the total state populations). The northern panhandle is predominately Germanic with Scandinavian in second place, and thus the state resembles neighboring Montana and Washington. The southeastern half of the state is more closely related to neighboring Utah in its English ethnic composition. In the Snake River Valley, one finds the predominant Germanic population plus English, Irish, Scotch and Scotch-Irish, along with sizeable concentrations of another Celtic group, the Welsh in Oneida County.

Ada County, with one quarter of the total state population of 1.6 million, is quite ethnically diverse; this county contains the above mentioned groups along with Scandinavians (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian), Dutch, and Italian. The southwestern portion of the state is home to a number of Basques, who are more numerous in neighboring Nevada.

* The Basque Museum and Cultural Center

611 Grove Street

Boise, ID 83702

(208) 343-2671; www.basquemuseum.com

 

Besides English and Danish Americans, a number of residents of Swiss descent as well as Welsh people the southwestern portion. Since the 1860s a Welsh American cluster in southern Idaho is the largest such concentration outside of Wales. While Welsh have been in America from the earliest English settlements, over time they have become dispersed and are often included in an "Anglo" or "British" enumeration.

 

* Malad Valley Welsh Festival (Eistedd Fod)

Malad Valley Welsh Society,

Malad Valley, ID 83252

 

The great surprise has been that a number of rural southern counties have recently acquired a plurality of Hispanic ancestry from one county in 2000 (101,000 people) to a dozen in 2010 (176,000). Many of these are counties with small overall rural populations and the division of German and English numbers allows Hispanic with often less than a third of the total county population to predominate.

 

About 37,000 Native Americans alone or in combination while scattered are more numerous in counties containing the quarter of a million acres of reservations for the Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, and Nez Perce tribal nations. They are in towns as well.

 

African Americans taken alone number less than 10,000 in 2010 and 16,000 in combination; these generally reside in urban areas.

 

Asian Americans increased from 12,000 to 19,000 from 2000 to 2010 and reflect the increase of this group throughout our country.

 

 

 

ILLINOIS

 

The Inland Empire is represented by virtually all American ethnic groups. One may divide the state into the Chicago metropolitan area and a rural downstate portion. The northern farmland counties are more Germanic with Swedish and Belgian concentrations.

 

* Belgian Museum of the Quad Cities

Center for Belgian Culture

712 18th Avenue

Moline, IL 61265

(309) 762-0167; www.belgianmuseumquadcities.org/aboutus

 

Southern Illinois reflects Ohio Valley patterns with American, English and Irish/Scotch-Irish. In the Deep South or "Little Egypt" numerous African Americans make this truly "Delta country." In eastern suburbs of St. Louis, one finds African Americans along with various Slavic groups. The French had early settlements along the Mississippi and traces in this ancestry data are apparent.

 

Chicago, the "Windy City" continues to be refreshed by its many older and recent arrivals, so many in fact that it's hard to highlight. The large numbers of Eastern Europeans (Poles, Czechs, Ukrainians, Baltics, Serbs, Slovaks, and others) allow Illinois to be called the Polish or Lithuanian State. A visit to Chicago gives a chance to experience America's diversity with Iraqis, Asian Indian and Hispanics living in formerly Swedish, Dutch and German areas. Baltic Americans are found in large numbers in the Chicago metropolitan area with a long-time concentration of Lithuanians in Marquette Park.

 

* Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture

6500 South Pulaski Road

Chicago, IL 60629

(773) 582-6500

 

* Chicago Latvian Center

4146 North Elston Avenue

Chicago, IL 60618

(773) 588-2085; www.manta.com/c/mm2js17/latvian-community-center

 

* Polish Museum of America

984 North Milwaukee Avenue

Chicago, IL 60642-4101

(773)384-3352; www.polishmuseumofamerica.org

 

Bosnians immigrated from war-ravaged former Yugoslavia in the 1990s; their destinations were generally parts of the Midwest.

 

* Bosnian Herzegovinan American Community Center

1016 West Argle Street

Chicago, IL 60640

(737)989-4381; www.bhaccchicago.org

-- Others

 

* German Cultural Center

4740 North Western Avenue

Chicago, IL 60625

(773) 561-9181; www.dankhaus.com

 

* Hellenic Museum and Cultural Center

601 West Adams Avenue, 4th Floor

Chicago, IL 60607

(312) 655-1234; www.hellenicmuseum.org

 

* Italian Cultural Center

1621 North 39th Street

Stone Park, IL 60165

(708) 345-3842

 

* Serbian Cultural Center

448 West Berry Avenue

Chicago, IL 60657

(773) 549-9690; www.stsavachicago.org

 

* Slovenian Cultural Center

14252 Main Street

Lemont, IL 60439

(630) 243-0670; www.slovenian-center.org

 

* Swedish American Museum

5211 North Clark Street

Chicago, IL 60640

 

Hispanics represent that mass migration that actually yielded our greatest 21st century surprise in the 2010 changing ethnic picture. This has occurred in Chicago where African Americans and Hispanics (mainly Mexican) became tied for Cook County plurality; likewise, three of the surrounding Chicago suburban counties (Lake, Kane, and Will) became predominantly Hispanic by 2010. The Illinois Hispanic community advanced from 636,000 in 1980, to 904,000 in 1990, and then to 1,530,000 in 2000, and to 2,028,000 in 2010, of which the majority are in metropolitan Chicago.

African Americans held steady at a little below 2,000,000 in the decade after 2000 with the majority in Cook County.

 

* Dusable Museum of African American History

40 East 56th Place

Chicago, IL 60437

773-947-0600; www.dusablemuseum.org

 

Asian Americans increased from 166,000 in 1980 to 285,000 in 1990 to 423,000 in 2000, to 586,000 in 2010 of which the majority are in Cook County and another one-fifth in neighboring DuPage County.

 

In 2010, the majority of the 43,000 Native Americans also live in the Chicago area with no state reservations.

 

* Mitchell Museum of American Indians

3001 Central Street

Evanston, IL 60201

(847) 475-1030; www.mitchellmuseum.org

 

* Ethnic Heritage Museum (Irish, Italian, African American, Italian, Polish, Lithuanian, and Hispanic)

1129 South Main Street

Rockfort, IL 61101

(815) 962-7402

 

 

 

 

 

INDIANA

 

The mid-American Hoosier State is where a number of ethnic patterns converge. Indiana's northern portion is the extension of the vast Germanic belt that goes from Pennsylvania to the Rockies. The Great Lakes industrial zone contains a strong contingent of Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Yugoslavs, Ukrainians) and other Eastern Europeans. French, Dutch, and Belgians also reside in the Lake Michigan vicinity as do colonies of Amish people. Indiana's southern portion is an extension of the Appalachian-Ozark Americana through migration with Irish/Scotch-Irish and English settlers.

 

Nineteenth-century Germanic immigrants from the Rhineland region settled in the Ohio Valley making this the ethnic Rhineland State. Indiana features the Swiss American heritage, though other states such as Wisconsin (Green County) could have been chosen. Switzerland keeps in touch with its expatriates and permits them to retain citizenship.

 

* Swiss Heritage Village & Museum

1200 Swissway Road

Berne, IN 46711

(260) 589-8007; www.swissheritage.org

(also Ogle Haus Inn, Vevay, IN 47043)

 

* Indiana German Heritage Society

401 E. Indiana Street

Indianapolis, IN 46203

www.gacl.org/indiana

The state capital, Indianapolis, is the "Crossroads of America." This major city has a large African-American population along with others groups. About 40% of the almost 600,000 (up from 510,000 in 2000) live in Marion County are the predominant group in the county. African Americans are also the leading group in northwestern Lake County and are concentrated in Indiana cities.

Native Americans alone or with others have grown from 39,000 in 2000 to 50,000 in 2010. There are no existing reservations in this state with such high early American Indian influence.

Asian Americans expanded rapidly from 59,000 in 2000 to 102,000 in 2010; they live in five urban and counties (Marion, Monroe, Hamilton, Tippecanoe, and Allen).

 

Hispanic, located principally in the northwestern and Indianapolis urban areas went from 87,000 in 1980 to 100,000 in 1990, 215,000 in 2000, and almost doubled to 390,000 in 2010.

-- General Culture

 

* Mathers Museum of World Culture

416 North Indiana Avenue

Bloomington, IN 47408

(812) 855-6873

www.mathers.indiana.edu

 

 

 

 

IOWA

The Hawkeye State's symmetrically checkered counties may seem monotonous, but on closer examination, they display rich ethnic diversity. While mainly Germanic, Iowa offers surprises: Luxembourgers, Amish, Czechs, Danes, Dutch, Irish, and Norwegians among others. Polk County's 431,000 (2010) residents are an ethnically diverse population, with sizeable numbers of Germans, Italians, Dutch, Scandinavians, Slavs, English, and Scotch. Following the First World War Czechs and Slovaks were united as one nation. America rural Czech settlements differ from urban Slovak ones. A museum of both groups in heavily Czech Cedar Rapids, Iowa celebrates the former togetherness of two peoples.

 

* National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library (see FL, PA)

1400 Inspiration Place,

Cedar Rapids, IA 52404

(319) 362-6500; www.ncsml.org

 

Dutch Americans comprise about 6% of the total state population (a percentage equal to Michigan's); and thus Iowa is a "Dutch State." Central Jasper, Marion and Mahaska Counties are heavily Dutch as are northwestern Sioux and Lyon Counties.

 

* Dutch Windmill

Highway T 14

Pella, IA

(614) 620-9463; www.dutchclub.org

 

Luxembourg is a small nation, but its people have an ethnic pride found in picturesque settlements in Iowa and Wisconsin.

 

* Luxembourg American Cultural Society

Remsen, IA 51050

www.luxamculturalsociety.org

 

* Danish Immigrant Museum

7212 Washington Street

Elk Horn, IA 51531

(712) 764-7001; www.dkmuseum.org

 

* Ackley Heritage Center (German)

120 State Street

Ackley, IA 50601

(641) 847-2201; www.ackleyheritagecenter.com

 

 

While over 90% of the state is listed as white, other races are represented and increasing. In 2010, almost 2% (53,000) are Asian American up from 37,000 the previous decade of which a quarter are in the Des Moines area; sizeable concentrations are located in Story and Johnson Counties.

 

About 3% (89,000 in 2010) of the population is African American with over half concentrated in the Des Moines area (Polk County) along with Black Hawk and Scott Counties.

Some 11,000 (2010) Native Americans live in Iowa, some at or near Sac and Fox Indian settlement in southwestern Tama County (1,300 American Indians).

 

Hispanics now number 152,000, having dramatically increased from 25,500 in 1980 to 32,600 in 1990, and to 82,000 in 2000. They are found throughout the state with the largest concentrations in Polk (Des Moines) and Woodbury (Sioux City) Counties.

 

 

 

 

KANSAS

The Sunflower State seems monotonously Germanic at first glance, but that is deceptive. Two large sections of the middle portion of the state were settled by immigrants from Russia making this the Germans from Russia State, though it shares that designation with ten others states on the Great Plains and into the Western portion of the nation. Rural Kansas was a center of that concentration in the 19th and 20th century. These were a very cohesive group of Lutherans, Catholics and Mennonites who sent scouts ahead from Russia to discover good agricultural land and decide on areas in which to settle as a body. With time these settlements amalgamated within the neighboring Germanic communities and so their actual designations are omitted in the 2010 maps.

 

* Mennonite Settlement Museum

501 South Ash Street

Hillsboro, KS 67063

(316) 947-3775; www.adobehouse.mennonite.net

 

Clusters of other ethnic groups as well settled in Kansas in the 19th and 20th centuries: French, Czechs, Swedes, Danes, English, Polish, Scotch-Irish, and Luxembourgers. The Kansas City and Wichita metropolitan areas include Italians, Greeks, and Middle Easterners. Italians and Yugoslavs are also found in the southeastern mining areas. Likewise, a number of Amish settlements thrive in the state. Kansas and neighboring Oklahoma, in contrast with other western states, have "Americans" as one of two predominant ethnic/racial categories.

 

African Americans are highly concentrated and numbered 154,000 in 2000 and 167,000 in 2010. They account for one quarter of Wyandotte County (Kansas City) population and 22% of Geary County's total and form a plurality in both.

Almost two-thirds of the 68,000 (2010) Asian Americans are located in Johnson (near Kansas City) and Sedgwick (Wichita) Counties.

Native Americans (59,000 in 2010 alone or in combination) are found in urban areas and also in four reservations in northeastern Kansas and include the Sac and Fox, Iowa, Kickapoo, and Potawatomi nations.

 

Hispanics, mainly in the southwestern portion of the state, increased from 63,000 in 1980 to 94,000 in 1990 and doubled to an amazing 188,000 in 2000 and then to 300,000 in 2010 (over 10% of the total Kansas population). Two southwestern Kansas counties (Ford and Seward) are unique in the Midwest in being over 50% Hispanic and seven others counties have or share a plurality with Germans.

 

 

 

KENTUCKY

 

The Bluegrass State has a mixed flavor of Central Appalachian, Southern Dixie, and Midwestern ethnic characteristics. The ethnic composition is somewhat homogenous: some 21% declare themselves ethnically "American," along with English, Irish, Scotch-Irish, with German predominating in several counties within the Ohio Valley in Northern Kentucky and Jefferson County (Louisville). Kentucky could be called the Ethnic Border State. Sizeable Irish and Alsatian groups have settled in the Ohio Valley as well. Over time the mid-south composition of urban Louisville and Lexington with their educational and health centers, have become more cosmopolitan and include a variety of immigrants from other lands from Asians to Bosnians. While ethnic colonies have never been as noticeable as in neighboring states, still Laurel and Lincoln Counties have Swiss colonies. Glascow hosts annual Scottish Highland Games.

 

Some 40% of the 120 counties in Kentucky are officially classified as "Appalachian," but the ethnic composition does not differ noticeably from that of contiguous counties, though the Bluegrass and Mountain cultures differ considerably. This Appalachian culture is shared with those of the North (see West Virginia) with its strong German, Italian and Slavic flavor as well as that of the South (see Tennessee).

* Brushy Fork Institute & Berea College Appalachian Museum

P.O. 2164

Berea, KY 40404

(859) 985-3903; www.berea.edu/brushyforkinstitute

 

Anglo/English groups of early America have lost much of their ethnic identity and so increasing numbers in Kentucky, Tennessee and other states further south and west identify themselves as "American." These Anglo groups formed part of the religious landscape and included a Shaker religious settlement of the 19th century with its very inventive and resourceful people.

 

* Shaker Village of Pleasant Hill

3501 Lexington Road

Harrodsburg, KY 30330

(800) 734-5611; www.shakervillageky.org

 

African Americans (337,500 or 7.8% of the total state population in 2010) were more highly represented in central and western sections of the state in the 19th century, but out-migration reduced those percentages. While the white race predominates in most rural counties, still a dozen central and western counties contain numbers of African Americans, and three of differing rural and urban status (Christian, Fulton, and Jefferson Counties) have them as the leading grouping.

 

Asian Americans went from 30,000 in 2000 to 49,000 in 2010 and Kentucky shares the national growth pattern of this group.

 

Native Americans rarely inhabited this "hunting commons" before Europeans arrived; their numbers in 2010 are 31,000.

 

Hispanic in-migration is dramatically increasing after the turn of the century over doubling from 60,000 in 2000 (1.5%) to a 2010 number of 132,000 (3.1% of total state population).

 

 

 

 

LOUISIANA

 

The Pelican State may be ethnically designated the Acadian or the Cajun State. While Blacks account for one-third of Louisiana's population, one-million residents regard themselves as "Cajuns," or with French, French-Canadian, or Acadian ancestry. These Acadian descendants, whose ancestors were forced to leave the Maritime Provinces of Canada in the 17th century, inhabit the southern portion of the state, which includes the Gulf Coast, the lower Mississippi Delta, and the Bayou country. The Louisiana maps show a higher number of Louisiana parishes as "French" because we group "French," "French-Canadian," and "Cajuns" into a single category; the majority of these people do not make clear distinctions unless ancestors came after the expulsion.

 

* Cajun Music Hall of Fame & Museum

240 S. C.C. Duson

Eunice, LA 70535

(337) 367-1526; www.louisianatravel.com/cajun

 

Some one and a half-million Louisiana African Americans form a 50% or above majority in East Carroll, Madison, Tensas, St. Helena, Orleans, and St. John the Baptist Parishes (counties). New Orleans is almost two-thirds African American; this group maintains a plurality in northern parishes due to lack of large concentrated numbers of Irish, English, Americans, Scottish or Scotch-Irish. A number of other ethnic groups are present in Louisiana, mainly in the New Orleans metropolitan area: Scottish, Italian, Polish, Greek, Scandinavian, Alsatian, Hungarian, and Middle Easterners. A Slavonic-Dalmatian colony exists near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Germans settled in the lower river parishes and the lower part of the state includes Italians.

 

* American Italian Renaissance Foundation Research Museum

537 South Peters Street

New Orleans, LA 70130

(504) 522-7294; www.americanitalianmuseum.com

 

Some 70,000 (2010) Asian Americans are in Louisiana with half being in the New Orleans vicinity. The strongest sub-group are the Vietnamese (about 40%) found in the southern part of the state and are known for their work in the fishing and small business areas.

 

In the first decade of this century the Hispanic community increased dramatically from 108,000 to 193,000 and is found clustered in the New Orleans metropolitan area and in southern Louisiana. Many of these sought employment in the wake of the Katrina hurricane disaster.

 

Native Americans number about 30,000 and are scattered throughout the state. The Chitimacha tribe has a small 400 person reservation in St. Mary Parish. The Houma claim 17,000 tribal members with state, but no federal, recognition. They are scattered over a six-parish southeastern Louisiana area mainly in quite rural settings. The small Coushatta Tribe has a reservation located in Allen Parish. The Choctaw are also scattered but are federally recognized as a tribe with headquarters at Jena in LaSalle Parish.

 

 

 

 

MAINE

 

New England's largest state in land mass and the one with the longest coastline in the lower 48 states became the residence of a combination of Anglo-Yankees and people from French Canada. This was followed by a generous dose of Irish in the 1800s and then by a variety of European migrants in the southern counties in the 20th century. All in all, Maine could be called the Canadian American State.

 

The Pine Tree State contains a heavy French and French Canadian presence with the highest concentrations found in the northern Aroostook and the southern Lewis Counties, and this ethnic group prevails throughout other portions of the state. Irish are found throughout Maine, while there are fewer Germans than in most states further south and west. English is fading as the predominant group though not as noticeably in northern New England as elsewhere. Southernmost Maine has diversity in ethnic groups similar to the neighboring New Hampshire coast (Greeks, Swedes, Finns, Scots, Poles, Italians as well as Irish and French Canadians). Some Middle East inhabitants live in southern towns. In addition, there are clusters of Swedish and Scottish people found in northeastern Aroostook County.

 

Racially, Maine resembles neighboring New Hampshire in ethnic composition, with over 95% of its population being white.

 

Some 17.000 Hispanics (2010) comprise 1.3% of the people and are located mainly in the Portland area.

African Americans have increased from 7,000 in 2000 to 16,000 in 2010 or 1.2% of the population.

During the first decade of this century, Asian Americans went from 9,000 to 14,000 and reside mainly around Portland.

 

Native Americans number about 8.500 and are found mainly in the east and in larger towns. Passamaquoddy (2 reservations) and Penobscot Indians (1 reservation) along with the Aroostook band of Micmac and Houston band of the Maliseet Indians. These groups are generally located in areas bordering neighboring New Brunswick.

 

* Penobscot Nation Museum

12 Down Street

Indian Island, ME 04468

(207) 827-4153; www.penobscotnation.org

 

Maine's French, English and Native Americans often connected with people in neighboring Canada, perhaps more so than any other state. The border is distinct but porous, with a high level of cultural and commercial intercourse. While folklore is truly Maine because of the uniqueness of the state, still it is highly influenced by its good neighbor to the North.

 

* Maine Folklore Center

5773 S. Stevens Hall

Orono, ME 04469-5773

(207) 581-1891; www.umaine.edu/folklife

 

 

 

 

MARYLAND

 

The Old Line or Free State is a sliver of Americana and embraces several ethnic regions. Ethnically, Maryland is represented by every group and, being near the national capital, can be called the National Ethnic State. It has elements of the South in its own southern peninsula (Americans, English, heavy concentrations of African Americans and Native Americans); its far western Garrett and Allegheny Counties are Appalachian with their Scotch-Irish and German elements; its northern counties (Hartford, Carroll, Frederick, and Washington) are the lower fringes of the nationwide Germanic Belt. Baltimore City and County with their African-American pluralities still have numerous urban ethnic groups (Slavic, Scandinavian, Hungarian, Dutch, Greek, and Italian) and reflect the cosmopolitan eastern seaboard stretching from Boston to Washington, DC; and Washington suburbs experience a rapid growth of Hispanic, Asian American and Middle Easterners.

 

African Americans are a sizeable number in Maryland with almost 1,800,000 and alone-or-in-combination constitute 30.9% of the population in 2010. Baltimore City and Prince George's County are both about 65% African American. These African American concentrations, plus the already mentioned southern Maryland concentrations, make it fourth highest in state percentage ranking excluding the District of Columbia. No state was more entangled in the early slavery controversies and commerce that brought African slaves to America. Maryland and the District of Columbia were in the middle of liberation and furnished leaders for that cause.

 

* African Art Museum of Maryland

5430 Vantage Point Road

Columbia, MD 21044

(410) 730-7105; www.africanartmuseum.org

 

* Banneker-Douglass Museum

84 Franklin Street

Annapolis, MD 21401

(410) 216-6180; www.bdmfoundation.org

 

In the Chesapeake Bay region where English Catholic and Protestants predominated from Colonial times, Piscataway Native Americans are found together with "Wesort" (Indians of mixed racial blood) who welcomed the early arrivals with genuine hospitality. Native Americans alone or in combinations increased from 39,000 in 2000 to 58,000 in 2010.

 

* American Indian Cultural Center

16816 Country Lane

Waldorf, MD 20601

(240) 432-7878; www.theamericanindiancenter.org

 

Asian Americans increased from 65,000 in 1980 to 139,000 in 1990 and to 211,000 in 2000, with 47% of that total in Montgomery County; by 2010 they totaled 319,000 or 5.5% of the population.

 

Hispanics followed a similar growth pattern going also from 65,000 in 1980 to 125,000 in 1990, to 228,000 in 2000, and to 471,000 in 2010 (8.2%); one-third of these live in Montgomery County where Hispanics tie with African Americans for predominance. Many Hispanics have roots in Central and South America.

 

 

 

 

 

MASSACHUSETTS

 

The Bay State's six million inhabitants comprise a rich diversity of cultures, races and ancestry. The state shares the wealth of groups found throughout southern New England and continuing along the Atlantic coast to Baltimore. The older Yankee component is more concentrated on the offshore island, Cape Cod, and in western Massachusetts. The accessible Boston port made Massachusetts a destination of diverse immigrant groups during the 19th and 20th centuries, thus being called the Irish State. However, others joined this group: Italians, Portuguese (predominantly represented in Bristol County), French and French-Canadians, Polish, Russians, Ukrainians and other Slavic groups, Swedes and Finns, Baltics, and Greeks, Armenians and Lebanese.

 

* Irish Cultural Center of New England

200 New Boston Drive

Canton, MA 02021

(781) 821-8291; www.irishculture.org

 

* Armenian Library Museum of America

65 Main Street

Watertown, MA 02172

(617) 926-2562; www.almainc.org

 

* Museum of Madeiran Heritage

27 Hope Street

New Bedford, MA 02745

(508) 994-2573; www.rixsan.com

 

This is one place where early English ancestry is celebrated.

* Plimoth Plantation

137 Warren Avenue

Plymouth, MA 02360

(508) 746-1622; www.plimoth.org

 

While the white race comprises over four-fifths of the total population, other races include about 6.6% of citizens (434,000) who are African American and include people from the Azores and Cape Verde. Norfolk County (Boston) is predominantly Black.

 

A slightly smaller number (5.5%) are Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Asian Indians and others), who tend to cluster near the numerous academic and research centers in the state. Asian American numbers increased from 238,000 at the turn of the century to 350,000 in 2010.

 

Due to recent immigration, many other Latinos and Hispanics, including Puerto Ricans and Cubans, help account for a jump from a total state population 429,000 in 2000 to 628,000 in 2010. Hispanics are now the leading ethnic group in western Hampden County (Springfield), and they tie with Irish as the predominant group in northeastern Essex County.

 

Native Americans number about 19,000 and are scattered.

Three small reservations exist (two of Nipmuck in Worcester County and one of Wampanoag on Cape Cod).

 

 

 

 

MICHIGAN

 

The Wolverine State's ethnic composition is one of the most diverse in America, if one counts various Slavic, Middle Eastern and Asian American groups. Numerous groups vie for predominance in one or more counties: Germans (in 31 counties), Finns, Native Americans, French and French Canadian, Belgians, Swedes, and Italians in the Upper Peninsula, African Americans (43% of total population in Wayne County), Polish, and Dutch (in 4 west central counties). Ethnically, Michigan is several states: the southeast Detroit Metropolitan area (Wayne, Oakland and Macomb) with immense ethnic diversity such as Slavic and Arabic people as the buckle on the Great Lake industrial belt and the Upper Peninsula. With such diversity, Michigan could be called the Finnish, Assyrian, or Arabic State.

Ethnically in number, Polish and Irish are strong. Since the Second World War Appalachians have been numerous in Detroit metropolitan area. Furthermore, Michigan is within the Germanic belt with one-and-a-half million citizens declaring German as first ancestry. When ranking groups African Americans are second and Poles and Italians follow in that order.

 

Arabic is often heard in the Detroit metropolitan area. A large and growing group of migrants from Arab lands has settled in and around Detroit. Arabs and Gulf State immigrants total one-half million and this comprises the largest such concentration in our country.

 

* American Islamic Center

21110 Outer Drive Road

Dearborn, MI 48124

(313) 565-9314; www.americanmuslimcenter.org

 

Chaldeans are an ancient Middle East people who inhabit Iraq and nearby lands. In America, they number about 50,000 mainly concentrated in the Detroit area (Oakland Co. 15,300 and Macomb Co, 11,800). They are classified in the U.S. Census as Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac and are Christians mainly of the Catholic Chaldean Rite and the Church of the East.

 

* Chaldean Cultural Center

5600 Walnut Lake Road

West Bloomfield, MI 48323

(248)682-5050; www.chaldeanfoundation.org

Finns are northern Europeans (not Scandinavians) and should not be grouped with them. Often, however, Finns reside in areas where Norwegians and Swedes are prevalent. However, in contrast to the Swedes who are predominant in no county, the Finns have four or more Upper Peninsula counties in which they are number one or share with others in plurality.

 

* Finnish Cultural Center

35200 West Eight Mile Road

Farmington Hills, MI 48335

(248) 478-6939; www.finnishcenter.org

 

-- Others

 

* Bosnian Cultural Center in Grand Rapids (see Illinois)

2839 Eastern Avenue S.E.

Grand Rapids, MI 49508

www.faqs.org/tax-exempt/MI/Bosnian-Cultural-Center

The Dutch are quite prominent in western Michigan and some regard this as little Holland with a city by that name.

 

* Holland Museum

31 West Tenth Street

Holland, MI 49423

(616) 796-3329; www.hollandmuseum.org

(also Dutch American Council in Grand Rapids)

 

* Frankenmuth Bavarian Inn Lodge & Restaurant

1 Covered Bridge Lane

Frankenmuth, MI 48734

(800) 228-2742; www.frankenmuth.com

 

* Italian American Cultural Center

43843 Romeo Plank Road

Clinton Township, MI 48038-1297

 

* American Polish Cultural Center

2975 East Maple Road

Troy, MI 48083

(248) 689-3636; www.americanpolishcenter.com

 

African Americans have remained static in numbers at about 1,400,000 or about one-seventh of the state population. Most are located in the Detroit metropolitan area but there are sizeable clusters in southwestern Michigan as well.

 

Asian Americans from several nationalities numbered 61,000 in 1980, 105,000 in 1990, 176,500 in 2000, and 238,000 in 2010; most of these live in urban areas. Asian Indians (Indo-Americans) are a recognized new addition to the Asian American ancestry mosaic. Many of these professionals arrive and cluster near academic and research facilities, but others are found in a variety of occupations including many businesses and motels.

 

* Indo-American Cultural Center & Temple

2002 Ramona Avenue

Portage, MI

(269) 324-8224; www.kalamazootemple.org

During the past few decades Hispanics increased from 162,000 in 1980, to 201,500 in 1990, to 324,000 in 2000, and to 436,000 (4.4%) in 2010. Note that this increase has occurred during a period when the overall Michigan population was static or slightly declining in this century. Hispanics are scattered, though 95,000 reside in Wayne County, 58,000 in Kent County (Grand Rapids), and 42,000 in Oakland in the Detroit metropolitan area.

 

The 62,000 Native Americans are predominantly Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi found mainly in or near a dozen reservations in northern or central Michigan along with 6,000 in Wayne County.

 

 

 

 

MINNESOTA

 

The Gopher State is strongly German and Scandinavian, but other groups are present as important minorities: urban Irish, Austrians, and Hungarians, rural areas of Czechs and Dutch in the south, French in Red Lake County, and Poles in Marshall County. The presence of Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes along with Finns give this state a pronounced Northern European flavor, for Minnesota is the heart of American Scandinavia. Ethnic state maps for the four decades show far broader coverage from this ethnic group; this is because the number of counties with mixed Scandinavian ancestry exceeds the number with Norwegian first ancestry plurality.

 

* Heritage Hjemkomst Center (Norwegian)

202 1st Avenue North

Morehead, MN 56560

(218)233-5604; www.hjemkomst-center.com

 

* American Swedish Institute

2600 Park Avenue

Minneapolis, MN 55407

(612) 871-4907; www.americanswedishinst.org

 

Other groups celebrate their unique ethnic roles as well:

 

* Gammelgarden Museum

20880 Olinda Trail North

Scandia, MN 55073

(612) 433-5053; www.gammelgardenmuseum.org

 

* Czech and Slovak Cultural Center of Minnesota

Sohol Hall, 383 Michigan Street

St. Paul, MN 55102

www.cs-center.org

 

Native Americans (Chippewa) have eight reservations in the sparsely settled but highly picturesque northern part of the state; however, they are also found in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties where one-quarter of the 61,000 (2010) Indians reside.

In 2010, African Americans number over a quarter of a million and comprise 5.2% of the population; they are concentrated in urban areas with about four-fifths of the this group found in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties (Minneapolis/St. Paul).

The 214,000 Asian Americans (4% of state population) is concentrated in this area including a large contingent of the total 260,000 Hmong Americans (second to California in numbers).

 

* Hmong Cultural Center

995 University Ave, N#214

St. Paul, MN 55104

(615) 917-9937; www.hmonglibrary.org

 

The Hispanic migration as witnessed in lower Midwestern states is coming to Minnesota as well. The state had 32,000 Hispanics in 1980, 54,000 in 1990, 143,000 in 2000 and 250,000 in 2010 (4.7% of population). About half are in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, and the rest are found in a number of smaller southern Minnesota towns and rural counties.

 

 

 

MISSISSIPPI

 

The Magnolia State resembles its neighbors within the African American belt stretching from the Carolinas to Texas. Two dozen counties have an absolute majority of African Americans, most of these within the length of the Mississippi River and Delta. African Americans represent about 37.6% of the total state population of about 3 million (2010), the highest percentage of any state, and thus the ethnic designation the African American State; the capital city of Jackson in Hinds County has a very high concentration. Only the two extreme northeastern or Appalachian counties are less than 10% African American.

 

* Oakes African-American Cultural Center

Yazoo City, MS 39194

Whites generally follow the Southeast's ethnic composition pattern, with the designated "American" (14%) highest and Irish and Scotch-Irish, English and German ranking in that order. The Acadian French are strongly represented in southern Hancock County bordering Louisiana. The Gulf coast has a number of Italians and other ethnic groups as well. The Jackson urban area also has more ethnic diversity than the rest of the inland portions of the state.

 

Asian Americans comprise a little more than one percent of the population increasing from 23,000 in 2000 to 32,500 in 2010; they are concentrated in urban and academic centers as well as along the Gulf coast.

 

Native Americans increased from 19,500 in 2000 to almost 26,000 in 2010; about 5.000 of them are found in Neshoba County, the home of the Choctaw Indian Reservation; however, their county total is exceeded by African Americans.

 

Hispanic census figures followed those neighboring state patterns with a decline from 1980 (25,000) to 1990 (13,000) and then a three-fold increase to 40,000 in 2000; this doubled to 81,000 by 2010. These Hispanics are found in urban areas in the Gulf counties of Harrison (9,000) and Jackson (over 6,000), as well as Desoto County near Memphis (over 8,000) though they have not achieved predominance in any county.

 

 

 

MISSOURI

 

The Show Me State contains a wide diversity of ethnic groups, because it is a border state with Southern, Midwestern, Ozark, and national cosmopolitan influences. In the south, Missouri resembles neighboring Arkansas with Ozark residents calling themselves American, English, Irish, and Scotch-Irish and very few African Americans, except in Pemiscot County at the head of the Mississippi Delta. Mid-Missouri is part of the heavy Germanic-belt with some Irish and English and scattered groups of Czechs. In the Germanic and "American" north there is an undercurrent of Scandinavians, especially the Norwegians along with Amish colonies. Missouri urban areas include Italians, various Slavic groups, Scandinavians, Greeks, Dutch, Austrians, Hungarians, Scots, and French. In Washington and surrounding counties south of St. Louis are French descendants of the early settlement by France. Missouri could be called the Austrian State.

 

While Missouri is clearly within the heavily Germanic Midwest belt, it stands out in celebrating its Germanic culture in a special way. Germans in America differ considerably in their religious and political stances. In the St. Louis area under heavy influence of the Missouri Synod Lutherans there is a strong conservative flavor to Germans in contrast to those of Wisconsin and other parts of the Midwest.

 

* UMSL German American Cultural Center

8001 Natural Bridge Road

St. Louis, MO 63121

(314) 516-4800; www.umsl.edu/services/gcc

 

The second largest ethnic group with about 700,000 in 2010 is African American with both the two largest sites (St. Louis City and County and Kansas City) moving over the four decades from Germanic predominance to that of African American plurality. Several southeastern counties along the Mississippi River are also predominantly African American.

 

Hispanics expanded from 52,000 in 1980 to 62,000 in 1990 and then almost doubled to 119,000 in 2000, and almost doubled again to over 212,000 (going from 2.1 to 3.5% of the population). They are located in various parts of the state with north central Sullivan County being the predominant ethnic group. Also over 10% of McDonald County is Hispanic.

 

Asian Americans have increased from 24,000 in 1980 to 41,000 in 1990, to 62,000 in 2000, and then to 98,000 in 2010, with half located in the St. Louis vicinity and one-eighth in Kansas City/Jackson County.

 

The 25,000 Native Americans reporting in 2000 advanced by natural increase to 27,000 in 2010; these lack reservations and are scattered throughout the state especially in urban areas, though a concentration exists in southwestern counties near Oklahoma.

 

 

 

MONTANA

 

The Treasure State, while fourth largest in territory, has one million people scattered over a vast region. However, population sparsity does not deter diversity. Montana shares in the rich Great Plains and Rocky Mountain ethnic mosaic with a heavy Germanic background and a mixture of other groups, especially because of 19th and early 20th century agricultural and mining settlements. Plains Indians are found on the eastern portion. The mining areas of the west contain clusters of Italians, Czechs, Poles and Yugoslavs. Scandinavians, especially Norwegians (the third largest ethnic group), are found throughout the state but especially in the northeastern counties where they are predominant.

In the western mining areas of Deer Lodge and Silver Bow Counties, are many Irish making Montana the Western Irish State? Featuring Irish in a special way is difficult in much of the United States outside of Northeast due to the high level of mobility and the tendency of Irish to mingle towns and cities. However, Montana is unique in the Northwest in having Irish concentrated in a few southwestern counties with a higher concentration (as percentage of population) of Irish than anywhere else west of the Mississippi.

 

* Irish Studies - University of Montana-Missoula

www.cas.umt.edu

 

Racially, Montana is over 90% white, but a sizeable number of Native Americans (62,500) comprise over 6% of the total state population. They include Blackfeet, Crow, Sioux, Assiniboine, and Cheyenne and are found in seven reservations in different parts of the state. Native Americans comprise a majority in three counties (Glacier, Big Horn, and Roosevelt Counties) and a plurality in three others (Blaine, Rosebud, and Lake Counties).

Asian Americans are few in number (6,000), and so it is logical to highlight them in more populous California, Washington, and Virginia. Perhaps it is a surprise to feature one major grouping in the Rocky Mountains. However, the Chinese Americans helped in many ways in the settling of the West and richly deserve this further mention in the mountain states.

 

* Mai Wah Museum

17 West Mercury Street

Butte, MT 59701

(406) 723-3231; www.maiwah.org

 

Increasing numbers of Hispanics are coming to Montana and comprise almost 3% (28,500) of the 2010 population -- which is still quite small compared to other Western states and lacking any county plurality.

 

While very few in number, African Americans increased in the first decade of this century from 2,700 to over 4,000 in 2010.

 

 

 

 

NEBRASKA

 

The Cornhusker State fits snugly as the buckle of the German ethnic belt that runs from Pennsylvania to the West Coast. Virtually all of the counties have Germans ethnically in first place much like neighboring Kansas. English and people classified as Americans are more numerous in the southeastern portion of the state. The Omaha metropolitan area (Douglas and Sarpy Counties) is ethnically diverse: Germans, Irish, Danes and other Scandinavians, Czechs, Poles and other Slavs, English, Italians (a Little Italy in Omaha), Scots, French, Greeks, Jews, and Swiss. Five counties have traditionally been Czech or Bohemian (Colifax, Butler, Saunders, Valley and Saline) so as to call Nebraska the Czech State.

 

* Sokiol South Omaha (Czech)

2021 "U" Street

Omaha, NE 68107

(402) 721-1065; www.american-sokol.org

 

Two counties have been Polish (Nance and Sherman), and one (Phelps) has been Swedish as noted in the earlier ethnic maps. The rural eastern portion of Nebraska still has a proud Slavic flavor. In all of these areas, the predominant ancestry group today is German and so this smothers out the strong influence of these two early Slavic groups in rural Nebraska, which still has secondary numbers of Slavic peoples. Note that the Germans from Russia are no longer prominent enough to outline designated areas.

 

* Polish Heritage Center (Sherman County)

P.O. Box 3

226 Carlton Avenue

Ashton, NE 68817

www.polishheritagecenter.com

 

Hispanics have been increasing rapidly in recent years. Currently 6% of the total population is Hispanic, having increased from 28,000 in 1980 to 37,000 in 1990 and to a surprising 94,000 in 2000 and 167,000 in 2010. Three counties in different parts of the state are predominantly Hispanic (Colfax, Dakota, and Dawson) with a strong contingent in Scotts Bluff County in the west. Over one-third of Nebraska's Hispanics reside in Douglas County (Omaha).

 

In 2010, about two-thirds the state's 83,000 African Americans reside in the Omaha metropolitan area. These increased from 68,500 in 2000.

 

In 2010, the 32,000 Asian Americans are not as concentrated, yet still half reside in and around Omaha. This group has increased from 22,000 at the turn of the century.

 

Thurston County has a majority of Native Americans on or near its reservation (Omaha, Ponca, and Winnebago) in the northeast. Two other counties have Indian reservations: Knox County (Santee Sioux) in the north and Richardson County (Sac & Fox and Iowa) in the southeast extending into Kansas. In 2010 the total Native Americans are 18,000 alone and 30,000 in combination with others.

 

 

 

NEVADA

 

The Sagebrush State name is being threatened by urbanization and wild fires. However, in recent years limited water supplies and the Great Recession have curtailed growth in this still sparsely populated state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's population is concentrated in the Clark County (Las Vegas) area. This Las Vegas metropolitan area has large numbers of Germans, English, and Irish, along with sizeable groups of Italians, French, Polish, Swedish, Scottish, Dutch, Norwegians, and people coming from various parts of the Middle East.

 

Basque Americans are not numerous but are quite ethnically conscious. Basque shepherds came to Nevada and then others followed from the Basque region of northern Spain and neighboring France. This ethnic group is only a few thousand in number (Washoe County is highest with 1,491); however, one can call Nevada the Basque State, which it can share to some degree with Idaho with its own Basque center.

 

* Center for Basque Studies

University of Nevada Reno

Reno, NV 89557-2322

(775)784-4854; www.basque.unr.edu

Hispanics have shown dramatic increases and plurality in various counties including over a half million in Clark county alone. Hispanics increased from about 400,000 in 2000 or almost 20% of the state population to 717.000 in 2010 (26.5%). By 2010 some eight counties are predominantly Hispanic and another shares this distinction with Germans. The "Hispanization" of this state in this century is most pronounced and will most likely continue.

 

African Americans increased from 135,000 to 219,000 in the first decade of this century, and comprise 8% of Nevada's population; a major portion of them resides in Clark County.

 

Asian-American proportional increases were even more dramatic than Hispanics, increasing from 90,000 in 2000 to 196,000 in 2010. This 114% rise in one decade is the fastest of a state in the nation. The vast majority are concentrated in the Las Vegas area, with most of the rest residing in Washoe County around Reno.

 

Native Americans, while only 32,000 strong in 2010, have 23 reservations in the state covering about one million acres. On these reside Paiute, Shoshone, Washoe and other Indian tribes, while almost a quarter of Nevada Native Americans live in Reno and Las Vegas.

 

 

NEW HAMPSHIRE

 

The Granite State has a similar ethnic composition to its northern New England neighbors Vermont and Maine. The state population is over 90% white; a majority of Asian American, African American, and other racial groups together with Hispanics are concentrated in Hillsborough County in or near Manchester, the state's largest city. The major state ethnic group is French/French-Canadian (about a quarter of the total population) and predominant in the majority of the counties with English and Irish following in ranking. Persons with Scottish backgrounds are quite numerous (34,000) and one may consider that it vies with North Carolina in being called the Scottish State.

The southern former mill towns are closely related to the ethnic composition of southern New England neighbors. These urban areas have strong Polish, Slovak, other Eastern European, Greek, Portuguese, Swedish, Finnish, and Italian numbers. In recent years, New Hampshire has become an "exurbia" of Boston and is experiencing changes of ethnic composition reflecting the movement of Massachusetts people north. One can expect larger numbers of Irish, Italians, Portuguese, Greek, and Middle Eastern people within the gradually increasing ethnic diversity, as more southern New Englanders discover the Granite State's benefits.

 

The Franco-Americans are a combination of French and French Canadians even though the smaller ethnic group "Canadians" may include some of French descent as well. The strong French flavor is shared by all the other New England states with Vermont, Maine, and Massachusetts having predominant counties; Rhode Island and Connecticut also have sizeable numbers who had originally come to the mills and factories in the 19th century industrial revolution.

 

* The Franco-American Centre

100 St. Anselm Drive

# 1798 Davison Hall

Manchester, NH 03102

(603) 641-7114; www.francoamericancentrenh.com

 

In 2010, New Hampshire had 3,000 Native Americans (10.500 in combination with others) and no reservations.

By 2010, some 15,000 African Americans comprised one percent of the state population.

 

From the year 2000 in one decade there was a near doubling of Asian American population from 16,000 to 28,000 people.

 

The Hispanic population also had a dramatic increase from 20,500 to 37,000 in the first decade of this century; this amounts to 3% of the total state population.

 

 

 

 

NEW JERSEY

 

The Garden State bears a rich display of multicolored ethnic symbols. Some 1.3 million Italians makes this only one of four states where this ethnic group shows signs of predominance. Hispanics have forged into the lead among ethnic groups in 2010 with almost 1.6 million people and some racial overlap. Along with Italians, African Americans are next in order with about 1.2 million people or one-seventh of the population each. Then come Irish, and Germans along with sizeable numbers of Asian Americans, Poles, and English. New Jersey vies with Connecticut as the Italian State.

 

Center for Italian and Italian American Culture

411 Pompton Avenue, Suite 5

Cedar Grove, NJ 07009

(973) 571-0199; www.ciiacofnj.org

 

In the 20th century, New Jersey Eastern European variation (Poles, Hungarians, Russians, Ukrainians, Slovaks, etc.) was quite pronounced.

 

* Hungarian Heritage Center

300 Somerset Street

New Brunswick, NJ 08903

(732) 846-5777; www.hstrial-pfazekaz.homestead.com

 

and Hungarian Festival (June)

New Brunswick, NJ

 

* Ukrainian American Cultural Center of New Jersey

60 North Jefferson Road

Whippany, NJ 07981

(973) 585-7175; www.uaccnj.org

In the recent period Middle Eastern variety (Iranians, Armenians, Arabs, Lebanese, Syrians, Greeks, Iraqis, Turks, etc.) make New Jersey compete with Michigan in being called the Middle East State. Scottish, French, Swedes, Austrians, Welsh, Swiss, and Portuguese are here, as are several enclaves of Dutch persisting from Colonial times.

 

Asian Americans increased from 156,000 in 1980, to 273,000 in 1990, and to 480,000 in 2000 (with Middlesex a recent plurality), and Bergen Counties having concentrations of Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, and Indo-Americans. The numbers are still growing with 726,000 Asian Americans in 2010.

 

* Indo American Religious & Cultural Center

465 Highway 27

Iselin, NJ 08830

(732) 283-1221

Hispanics with mixed racial backgrounds have increased dramatically, from 491,000 in 1980, to 740,000 in 1990, to 1,142,000 by 2000, and to 1,555,000 in 2010. These constitute 40% of Hudson County (Jersey City) and 37% of Passaic County (Paterson) and include many Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and other Latin Americans. Hispanics have a plurality in Cumberland and Middlesex Counties and share in two (Bergen and Somerset) with Italians. Again, there is some possible overlap, as some will identify themselves as both Hispanic and African American.

 

* New Jersey Hispanic Research & Information Center

The Newark Public Library

5 Washington Street

Newark, NJ 07101

(973) 733-7784; www.npl.org/Pages/Collections/njhric.html

African Americans are not increasing as rapidly as Asians and Hispanics; they increased from 1,142,000 to 1,204,000 in the first decade of this century; they are concentrated in such urban centers as Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Camden and have been augmented by others from Latin America and Africa.

 

* Afro-Brazilian Cultural Center of New Jersey

356 Bloomfield Avenue, Suite 3

Montclair, NJ 07042

(973) 744-4934; www.abccnj.com

Native Americans numbered 29,000 in 2010 and have three Federal or state recognized groupings: Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape, Powhatan Renape nation, and the Ramapough Lunaape Nation.

 

* Woodruff Indian Museum

150 Commerce Street East

Bridgeton, NJ 08302

(856) 451-2620

 

 

 

 

NEW MEXICO

 

New Mexico, the Enchanted State, is also truly the Hispanic State with over 46% of its 2010 population being of Hispanic or Latino origin (up from 30% in 1970, 37% in 1980, and 42% in 2000). While more populous states such as Texas and California have millions of Hispanics, still the almost one million Hispanics in sparsely settled New Mexico are significant, and makes this second to Hawaii in a national minority becoming state majority. New Mexico stands as having mostly indigenous Hispanics and the lowest level of foreign-born of major Hispanic states (less than 10%). All New Mexican counties except the three northwestern Native American ones and Catron (American) have majority or are predominantly Hispanic.

 

* National Hispanic Cultural Center

1701 4th Street, SW

Albuquerque, NM 87102

(505) 246-2613; www.nationalhispaniccenter.org

 

New Mexico with 193,000 Native Americans is the ancestral home to a number of Indian tribes and nations; they reside both on 24 reservations covering three million acres and in urban centers. Indians constitute almost one-tenth of the state's population. Navajo are generally in the northwestern "Four Corners" portions of the state in San Juan and McKinley Counties. Ute and Apache peoples are immediately to the east. The Pueblo-dwelling Zuni, Tanoan, Keresan and other peoples are found in the west and south central portions of the state, especially in the Rio Grande and tributary valleys, and form a rich cultural tradition.

 

*Indian Pueblo Cultural Center

2401 12th Street, NW

Albuquerque, NM 87104

(505) 843-7270; www.indianpueblo.org

 

Albuquerque is a southwestern metropolitan area and 0Bernalillo County contains about 30% of the total state population. A large number of ethnic groups, such as Germans, Irish, English, French, Italians, Scandinavians, Slavic, Welsh, Greek, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, and Dutch are represented.

 

In 2010, almost half of the state's small African American population of 42,500 is found in the Albuquerque urban area. This is an increase from a little more than 34,000 in 2000.

 

Over half of the 28,000 Asian Americans also reside in the Albuquerque area. Furthermore, small Los Alamos County with its national laboratories, attracts a diverse population; this county had a former Germanic predominance and a sizeable number of Asian Americans and yet the plurality is held by Hispanics.

 

 

NEW YORK

 

The Empire State contains a large number of ethnic groups especially clustered in the New York City metropolitan area. The state is ethnically the Puerto Rican, Dominican, Albanian, Greek, Maltese, Turkish and Jewish State. The Long Island boroughs have enclaves of Norwegians in one place, Greeks in a second, and Hungarian Jews in another, with the Irish and Italians being quite numerous throughout the island. The New York City portions have heavy Hispanic and African American representations. Manhattan's Chinatown, Harlem, and its proximity to Ellis Island make this in some ways America's Ethnic Diversity Capital. Upstate New York is heavily Germanic in the Lake Erie region and the Mohawk Valley, with French and many Polish and other Slavic groups also present. Swedes are found in the Lake Erie Counties and Danes and Amish in Yates County. Counties bordering Quebec are strongly French and French Canadian. Italians and Irish as well as descendants of early Dutch settlers live in the Hudson Valley. Academic centers in Tompkins and Broome Counties add to this ethnic diversity.

 

Greek Americans are scattered across the United States but the major concentration is on Long Island. These people have been highly successful in a variety of business and are strongly loyal to their cultural roots.

 

* Hellenic Cultural Center

27-09 Crescent Street

Astoria, NY 11102-3142

(718) 626-1398; www.hellenic.goarch.org

 

People from the Island of Malta have come to the Northeast and Midwest and congregated in areas where other Mediterranean people

(Greeks, Italians, etc,) settled. New York City has the major concentration.

 

* The Maltese Center

27-20 Hoyt Avenue South

Astoria, NY 11102-1942

(718) 728-9883

 

Albanians of both Christian (Catholic and Orthodox) and Muslim

segment have migrated in relatively large number to this metropolitan area.

 

* Albanian Islamic Cultural Center

307 Victory Boulevard

Staten Island, NY 10301

(718) 816-9865; www.aicc-ny.org

 

While large numbers of non-Turkish immigrants came from the Ottoman Empire in the 19th and early 20th century, still Turkish people are generally of more recent arrival.

 

* Turkish Cultural Center

245 Avenue U

Brooklyn, NY 11223

(347) 903-8875; www.turkishculturalcenter.org

 

Three-quarters of the 3.0 million African Americans (holding steady in population since 2000) reside in New York City with Kings County (Brooklyn) being predominantly African American. This group lost its state predominance in the 2000 to 2010 period to Hispanics who include people who are of mixed race -- but this complicates the comparison.

 

In 2010, the 3.4 million Hispanics are highly concentrated in the New York City metropolitan area and are predominant in Queens, Bronx, and Manhattan with the city being home to 80% of them. Hispanics have increased from 2.2 million in 1980 to 2.9 million in 2000 to the present total.

 

* Dominican Civic Cultural Center

619 West 145th Street

New York, NY 10031

(212) 234-9577

www.harlemonestop.com

 

Asian Americans have experienced dramatic increases from 323,000 in 1980 to one million at the turn of the century and then to 1.4 million in 2010. They are concentrated in New York City with over one-third in Queens alone.

 

Over half of 107,000 Native Americans (including the Iroquois Confederation tribes) are in the City, with many others on the several state recognized Indian reservations.

-- Other Interest Places and Groups --

 

* Ellis Island Immigration Museum

Liberty Island

New York, NY 10004

www.ellisisland.com

 

* Goethe-Institut New York

77 Spring Street, 11th Floor

New York, NY 10017

(212) 439-8700; www.goethe.de

(other locations at 5 E. Third St. and 38 Ludlow Ave.)

 

* Federation of German American Societies

www.buffalogerman.com

 

* Hungarian Cultural Center

447 Broadway # 5

New York, NY 10013-2562

(212) 750-4450; www.culturehungary.org

 

* Michael J. Quill Irish Cultural & Sports Center

(Greene County, New York)

East Durham, NY

www.irishvillageusa.com

 

* Center for Jewish History (See GA)

15 West 16th Street

New York, NY 10011

(212) 294-8301; www.cjh.org

(also Yeshiva University Museum)

 

 

 

 

NORTH CAROLINA

Like neighboring Virginia and Tennessee, the Tar Heel State is divided into three basic regions. The coastal area is a continuation of the African American/American and English belt, which stretches from Virginia to Florida. Pre-Revolutionary War settlements of Scottish, German, and Moravian people have influenced the ethnic mix of the population in the central Piedmont portion of North Carolina for centuries. This area now includes major cities such as Raleigh and Fayetteville with somewhat diverse populations including Asians, Italians, and Middle Easterners. Early Scottish settlers brought many cultural traits to help weave the American ethnic fabric. While one could list dozens of Scottish festivals, the region includes premier Scottish settlements (Moore County, etc.).

 

* Scottish Tartans Museum

86 East Main Street

Franklin, NC 28734

(828) 524-7472; www.carolinatartan.com

 

Early settlers were highly concentrated in various parts of the state and this is still reflected in strong cultural links.

 

* Old Salem Museums and Gardens

600 South Main Street

Winston Salem, NC 217101

(336) 721-7300; www.oldsalem.org

 

The western portion of North Carolina has Southern Appalachians who have roots in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland, along with a mixture of Germans. Retirement communities attract migrants from many places to the Asheville area.

 

North Carolina is home to a little more than 2,000,000 African Americans or 22% of the population. Most Eastern counties have heavy concentrations and five have majorities.

 

* International Civil Rights Center & Museum

134 South Elm Street

Greensboro, NC 27401; www.sitinmovement.org

 

Native Americans number 122,000 in the state. A sizeable federal Indian reservation is located in Swain County. Robeson County also has a plurality of Native Americans principally Lumbee. Haliwa-Saponi and Waccamaw-Siouan Tribes are also represented.

 

* Museum of the Cherokee Indian

589 Tsali, Cherokee, NC 28719

(828) 497-3481

 

North Carolina has a dramatic rise in Hispanic numbers; these have more than doubled from 378,000 in 2000 to 800,000 in 2010 (8.4% of total population). In Chatham County, Hispanics tie with African Americans for plurality with 112,000 in Mecklenburg County and large numbers in 50 counties.

 

Asian Americans move from 114,000 in 2000 to 209,000 in 2010 with higher concentrations in urban and academic/research centers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

NORTH DAKOTA

 

The Sioux State is the only state with a traditional nickname that has an ethnic origin. On the other hand, we call South Dakota, the neighbor to the south, the Lakota State. Actually, from an ethnic perspective, North Dakota can hold the rank of the Norwegian State with about one-third of the people claiming that as primary or secondary ancestry, second in number after the Germans.

Older ethnic maps show a patchquilt of ethnic groups in the rural North Dakota countryside besides the ones just mentioned: Swedes, Danes, Finns, Icelanders, French Canadians, Ontarians, Luxembourgers, Irish, English, Belgians, Poles, Czechs, and Ukrainians (Billings County is the only county in the United States where that group at one time ranked in plurality). The rural ethnic patterns have changed with much out-migration in recent decades, though oil and gas expansion and other employment prospects in recent years is repopulating parts of the state.

 

Through decades of intermarriage a blending of ethnicity has occurred among people of the northern Midwest into a grouping that is identified as "Scandinavian" but includes those of Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and Icelander origin -- and to a lesser degree other Northern Europeans such as the Finnish Americans.

 

* Scandinavian Heritage Park

1020 South Broadway

p.o. Box 862

Minot, ND 58702

(701) 852-9161; www.scandinavianheritage.org

 

Native Americans (about 36,500 or 5.4% of the total population) are found especially in counties where the five American Indian reservations are located; an increasing number are scattered in different parts of the state. Native American groups are comprised mainly of Lakota, Chippewa, Mandan, Arikata, and Hidatsa (last three are federated).

 

* Three Federated Tribe Museum

404 Frontage Road

New Town, ND 58763

(701) 627-4781

 

Asian Americans doubled from a low number of 3,600 in 2000 to almost 7,000 in 2010.

 

African Americans doubled from the turn of the century number of 4,000 to 8,000 (1.2% of total population) in the recent Census.

Hispanics, while a little over one percent or almost 8,000 in 2000 increased to 13,500 in 2010, a pattern of growth found throughout the Great Plains.

 

 

 

 

OHIO

 

The Buckeye State is predominantly of German origin with 2.1 million people designating this as their primary ancestry. The state is divided into the German/Slavic/Italian north and the German/ American/Irish/ English/Scotch/Scotch-Irish south. Rural Ohio includes colonies of Amish (generally of German or Swiss background) as well as concentrations of Welsh, French, Swiss and Austrians in different parts of the state. Columbus is in the middle of Ohio with its ethnic diversity resembling that of Cincinnati in the south and Cleveland, Youngstown, and Toledo in the north.

 

* German Cultural Center

7370 Columbia Road

Cleveland, OH 44326-1502

(440) 235-2646

www.donausschwabencleveland.com

 

* German Culture Museum (Amish)

4877 Olde Pump Street

P.O. Box 51

Walnut Creek, OH 44687

(330) 893-2571

www.germanculturemuseum.com

 

* Old St. Mary's Church (German)

123 East 13th Street

Cincinnati, OH 45202

(513) 721-2988

 

In the more densely populated industrial northeast one finds a host of Eastern groups including Lithuanians, Rumanians, Ukrainians, Poles, Slovaks, Czechs, Russians and other groups making this the Croatian, Slovenian, and Hungarian State.

 

* Hungarian Cultural Center of Northeastern Ohio

12027 Abbott Road

Hiram, OH 44234

(330) 274-2786

(330) 274-2786; www.hungarianclub.org

 

* Slovak Institute

10510 Buckeye Road

Cleveland, OH 44104

(216) 721-5300; www.slovakinstitute.com

 

* Slovenian Museum & Archives

6407 St. Clair Avenue

Cleveland, OH 44103-1633

(216) 361-5600; www.smacleveland.org

 

Much like neighboring Michigan, Ohio is home for many Arab Americans, especially throughout the northern areas.

 

* Maronite Center (Christians)

1555 South Meridian Road

Youngstown, OH 44511

(330) 792-7671; www.stmaronyoungstown.org

 

* Islamic Center of Greater Toledo

25877 Scheider Road

Perrysburg, OH 43551

(419) 874-9123; www.icgt.org

Cleveland, as part of the Western Reserve, attracted numerous people from the British Isles in its early settlement (English, Scottish, etc.). It was also attractive to the largest number of Manx (people from the Isle of Man) with a strong migration in the early 19th century.

 

* The Cleveland Manx Society

www.northamericanmanx.org/cleveland

African American are becoming the ethnic group of predominance in the urban counties Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland, as well as tying with Germans in Montgomery County (Dayton) and with Italians in the Youngstown area. Hamilton County is 26%, Franklin 21%, and Cuyahoga 30% African American.

 

Asian Americans have increased from 51,000 in 1980, to 91,000 in 1990, to 133,000 in 2000, and to 192,000 in 2010 (1.7% of total state population); over half are in the three major metropolitan areas.

 

Hispanic numbers are also rapidly growing from 120,000 in 1980 to 140,000 in 1990, to 217,000 in 2000, and to 355,000 in 2010 with about 40% living in the three major urban areas. Expanding concentrations of Hispanics are found in the northern rural and urban Ohio counties; however, these are not yet concentrated to constitute a plurality in any Ohio counties.

 

The 25,000 Native Americans (2010) have no reservations and reside mostly in urban Ohio. Note that while alone numbers were virtually stagnant during this first decade of the 21st century, alone-and-in-combinations with Native American blood went from 76,000 in 2000 to 90,000 in 2010.

 

 

 

OKLAHOMA

 

Ethnically, the Sooner State is unusual. It was set up as "Indian Territory" during the early 19th century and then was opened to wider settlement in the famous land grab a half century later. Today, we find the 322,000 descendants of Native Americans (461,000 if considered in combination) scattered throughout much of the state, and sometimes by tribal groupings in or near the counties named for them. However, today 36,000 reside in Tulsa and 25,000 in Oklahoma City. Since so many tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, etc.) were transferred from various parts of the eastern and Midwestern United States, Oklahoma could be designated the Native American State.

 

In recent decades, it has become a matter of pride to self-identify as a Native American. Note that the 43 headquarters of the various tribes in Oklahoma are indicated in the 2010 map, and that they are not always situated in counties bearing their respective names.

 

* The American Indian Cultural Center & Museum

900 North Broadway Suite 200

Oklahoma City, OK 73102

(405) 239-5500; www.aiccm.org/visitor-center