Introduction: Why an Ethnic Atlas Project?
exert time and energy on something so far removed from my usual Earthhealing
environmental focus? The question
accompanies a real puzzle that was initiated as an way of spending my free time
when I returned to Appalachia in the 1970s.
I was intrigued about the roots of the culture of the region. How can anyone meaningfully address public
interest issues without first knowing people, their views, and how they respond
to problems? This involves their
puzzles in the commercial arena are interesting, but real puzzles are
doubly intriguing. We all need hobbies
to take our minds off everyday stresses of life. Collecting and analyzing real statistics is a
pleasant diversion to a very few of us who shun fiction. Manufactured puzzles are not really appealing
when real ones exist that when solved, will benefit others. The ethnic picture of Appalachia and of the United States has always been a real
puzzle because it is quite complex and it is in flux. Obtaining a static view at one time has some
merit, but a more challenging puzzle is to unfold the changing face of ethnic America over time, a truly social,
ecological, and academic issue.
are more aware of their ethnicity and are proud of their particular ancestry;
others are silent and would like to keep it hidden. Today a sizeable number of citizens define
themselves as "American" because they are either confused about their
ethnic roots or find the categories do not satisfy their own yet unlisted
ethnic preferences. Truly, being
American applies to all of us in this country, either those here with roots for
centuries or those who are recent immigrants.
Some prefer to associate with their ethnic kin either for support or
because of an ethnic pride worth celebrating on occasions. We are all ethnic in some way or other; it is
just that other issues in life often dampen this consciousness. In the deep-down heart of things, most people
would like to uncover more about their own roots and share with others.
of our individual ethnic roots increases when we spend time discovering the
cultural wealth of our ancestors' homelands.
Orphans want to learn about parents; native-born Americans carry out
ancestry searches; third generation Americans return to the Old Country;
ex-slaves are fascinated with tracing cultural backgrounds. We are who we are, and others who have passed
on had a hand in fashioning this. Our
genealogical histories open doors for us, but so do the cultures all around us
in our locality, each contributing in some little way in making us a
community. What is presented here is not
one's unique and personal history but that of the American ethnic
environment. Together with our hidden
roots are those of the neighborhood, region, state, and nation, the neighbors
who share their ethnicity with the rest of us.
This contribution fashions our actions and reactions in ways we often
overlook. May we know ourselves better
and thus cooperate through this shared knowledge.
Ethnic and Ecological
awareness can also be environmental awareness -- our homes and community
structures, our interactions with friends, our recreational and educational
choices, our tolerance for weather changes, our celebrations and joys, our
religious worship and ways of conducting and participating in funerals and
weddings, and our many interrelationships -- are frequently rooted in our
ethnicity or in the collective ethnicity of a community. How we solve problems as a democratic people
depends on the social capital, which we are helping to shape and in which we
have invested much of ourselves. The way
we practice our democracy and our sense of civility is partly an inherited
pattern coming through participation in a democratic community. So is our ecological ethic that is part of
social capital, namely, the way we treat livestock and wildlife, soil and
trees, people and Earth herself.
enters into our current public interest issues and ought not be neglected, for
we all have differences both as individuals and as members of a community. As the ethnic composition changes over time,
we can become reactionary and entrenched in our traditional ways, even
detesting recent arrivals and their contributing ethnic characteristics. We are members of families with ethnic traits
and still are also participants in communities that have absorbed a variety of
such traits to start new ethnic groups that emerge over time (see Appendix 1).
we delve more deeply we find that merely identifying with a certain ethnic
group through answers to a census-taker is not the whole story.1 We may identify our personal preference as
far as subjective knowledge allows for an honest answer, but are unclear as to
which portion of a mixed ancestry we ought to declare. One who is non-Germanic in a heavily German
community may be willing to be assimilated and join cultural groups so associated,
or may wish to express differences by reaffirming one's roots. Resistance may be difficult and we will allow
majority views to go unchallenged in matters of economics, social life, or
regard their ethnicity as personal and do not want to discuss this with
others. Others will take pride in
telling stories of forebears and heroic efforts in settling, raising their
families, service to the country in times of war, and conditions they had to bear
to be accepted by others. However,
others dismiss ethnicity as unimportant and prefer to blend in without specific
notice. Still others actually take offence, "Why do you need to
know?" Delicate subjects demand
proper introductions and discovering ethnicity is one of these. Recall that some people would not like to
uncover family history, or regard their own ignorance as a failing for not
interacting better with parents or grandparents while they were living. Instead, ethnicity comes with a tinge of
remorse, shame or blame. On the other
hand, people can develop a late-blooming concern for what is threatened or
endangered in their own personal lives.
They hear that half the world's languages will be lost by 2100; they see
this is similar to the threatened and endangered plants and animals issue.
Awareness of Ethnic Centers and Festivals
ethnic cultural center has a certain importance due to a history of settlement
or continued habitation, support to new arrivals, pride in a particular
ethnicity, or efforts to reconvene scattered people who moved away from a
settlement. Thus, museums and cultural
centers are often current gathering places for people of a certain
ethnicity. Interestingly, some have such
centers in Florida or Arizona where retired people desire
to gather among others of the same ethnic background, even if they originally
lived in diverse places (e.g. Slovaks in Florida or Irish in Arizona). Occasional gatherings have importance in our
mobile world where one in five Americans move every year. Homecomings,
reunions, and festivals are examples of these periodic gatherings that most
often occur in areas of former or existing concentration of these groups.
religious and civic groups celebrate ethnic and cultural roots as, for example,
Greek festivals are associated with local Greek Orthodox churches or Italian
festivals with a particular Catholic feast day.
Often, religious statistics are reported for all persons of an ethnic
group, some of whom are only remotely associated with the ethnic church of
their youth or ancestors. At our beginning work we attended to Jewish groups
(obtained from non-census data), mainly because some do not like to be
identified with their lands of origin before migration to this country. Some are offended by our singling out special
designation --though Jewish concentrations in California, New York, Florida, and major cities are often
reported as part of Russian, German, Romanian, Lithuanian and other ethnic
groupings. People are mobile and enter,
drift off, or leave these religious groups through lack of participation,
intermarriage, or conversion. We do not
single out religious groups as such, except that groups designated
"Am" or Pennsylvania Germans in the Census are generally Amish,
Mennonite, or an associated religious grouping.2
importance in enhancing the ethnic patterns of groups are celebrations over
periods of time. They celebrate their
ancestry, culture or race in some way through festivals and family gatherings,
and through support of museums and shrines.
Note in more mobile days I attended German, Italian, Greek, Appalachian,
Hispanic, and Slavic festivals, and Irish parades, gone to Black and Native
American museums, and visited Wendish Lutheran, French Huguenot, Russian
Orthodox, and Luxembourger, Italian, Hispanic, and Hungarian Catholic
churches. But even in our highly
diversified country a number of distinct ethnic locations exist, but it is hard
to pinpoint those of greater interest when they are smothered by predominant
have tried in the 2010 maps to highlight about 200 of these centers and
festivals with an interest in giving all some representation and yet knowing
that recent migrants have not had the opportunity to create centers and times
of celebration as have more settled ethnic groups. If a reader regards their favorite group as
missing, please inform us, since later editions of this digital version can be
Pride in Ethnicity and Being
U.S. census-taker or surveyor
allows people to give their first and second ethnic choices
(self-reporting). Some find this
worrisome and even annoying even when guaranteed that individual identity of
persons will not be available for commercial purposes. Often people respond quickly and may even
give slightly different answers as to ethnicity if asked later. The total accumulation of vast amounts of
national information makes for a comprehensive picture, which perhaps
approximates a true picture by the law of averages. Granted, data collectors can make sampling
errors, still most are conscientious and we have a relatively good
approximation of an authentic American ethnic picture. Certainly the U.S. Census information from Georgia does not resemble that of Vermont; nor does the Texas ethnic picture resemble that
of North Dakota's. The
reporting with all its limits does present a relatively true composite picture
for a given time.
decades ago an account appeared of an Irish-American infant who was raised by
an Amish community and became part of it.
This is a case of transferring to another ethnic group after birth and
could occur through adoption, marriage, or even personal associations. These trans-ethnic occurrences are more
common than at first glance. When people
marry into another racial or ethnic group, the stronger and more enthusiastic
party generally governs the attachment to a particular ethnic group.
enjoy celebrating with others and thus become a little part of their ethnicity
when we partake in others' good will and cheer.
Is this a "melting pot" effect, or the American acceptance of
the stew of ethnic variation?
Tolerating diversity makes us more globally centered and breaks down the
biases and stereotypes that are often associated with certain groups by overly
closed clans and families. In becoming
acquainted with diverse ethnic foods, dances, costumes, and celebrations we
grow in the treasures of other cultures, we continue to be hospitable and we
refuse to demand uniform conformity in thought patterns.
pride fades with groups or through the years, and perhaps is replaced by
specific "regional" ethnicity.
Some people prefer to be called American instead of one or other
standard ethnic category, especially if among the simple majority of our
country with some roots in Colonial America.
These numbers are part of a category that is present in large numbers in
Appalachia, the Ozarks, and portions of
the Southeast. Is this a lack of ethnic
consciousness or an absence of a proper cultural category for response? While "Pennsylvania German" is one
such ethnic grouping based in part on land of origin, Ozark or Appalachian
people are forming a cultural unity from diverse backgrounds over several
generations. Many from these regions
declare themselves American or "United States" for ethnicity, but the
numbers are not growing as fast as the rise of Hispanics and Asian
Americans. The American designation
speaks to lack of specific ethnicity but actually the birth rates of the groups
tending in this direction are less than that of more pronounced ethnic and
racial groups. (See Appendix 2).
Ethnic Amalgamation or Ethnic
myth or fact of an ethnic melting pot ought to be considered in the light of America's changing ethnicity. Some hold a conformist view of a single bland
culture with no differences in language, religion, culture, and even
cuisine. For them uniformity is the key
to a more perfect union. They forget the
motto that we find on our money as part of the great seal of the United States is e pluribus unum (from
many one). It is not better as Americans
to abandon our federalism and its state powers and responsibilities for a
single centralized government. Nor
should we expect a single nationwide culture from which diverse ethnicity has
"many" help give honor and dignity to the "oneness." Amazingly, it was a diversity of ethnic
groups that made up the first unity of the colonies into a nation even though
the rich Native American sense of democracy was overlooked, nor were African
American slaves regarded as more than three-fifths of a person. Over time
non-propertied white males, black males, women, Native Americans, and those
18-21 were allowed to vote. With time
and with blood, sweat, and tears we are gradually becoming a more perfect
union. More integration is still to come
but still the American welcome mat extends to diverse racial and ethnic people.
myth of "melting pot" is perhaps stronger in some parts of the nation
than others. Those states that have
higher "American" designations are more likely to expect a single
ethnic class or white grouping for all citizens -- if that is even
possible. However, lower birth rates
among whites was evident in the 2010 Census with whites constituting 64% of the
population on the whole but only 54% of those under 18 years of age. In the decade since the turn of the
millennium, the American population climbed 10% to 309 million but minorities
accounted for 92% of that growth.
Hispanics swelled by 43% to 51 million, Asian Americans by the same rate
of growth to 15 million, and African Americans increasing by 11% to 38
million. Many school districts now have
schools where whites are in a minority.
intermarriage and mobility out from ethnic communities, some loss of identity
occurs among that slower-growing white population. Older Colonial and post-Revolutionary War
migratory groups from the British Isles and parts of continental Europe are not increasing to any
marked degree. The Scottish and
Scotch-Irish are present in most counties, but not in a plurality (first of
several in number) in any one of them.
German is still a plurality in half the counties but that is declining
in this current decade. English have
witnessed a sharp decline over the past forty years with a number being
reported as "American."
an amalgamation is occurring especially in older 17th and 18th century arriving
groups, America has always had a fresh
infusion of migrants, and thus emerging ethnic groups. In other words, diversification (mainly along
racial lines) is a countercurrent to amalgamation. Recent large numbers of Asians and of
Hispanics (of various racial backgrounds) add much to diversity in degrees not
seen since the great southern and eastern European migrations of the late 19th
and early 20th centuries.
rates increase with higher mobility and intermarriage and this has occurred
with greater frequency with distance from the major migration periods. Decline in amalgamation occurs with increased
immigration and higher birth rates among minorities that tend to be ethnically
recognized as distinct by language or race.
Spanish, not German, is becoming America's second language but even
here amalgamation occurs as the next generation is facile with English as
primary American tongue. At this time,
total general population rise through amalgamation is occurring at a slower
rate than population rise through diverse groups (Hispanics, Asian, Native
Americans and African Americans).
occurs through intermarriage and failure of new generations to identify with
the ethnicity of their parents, for as third and further distant generations
they have lost their roots. They prefer
to forego their last name and make a hyphen with a spouse; they move to a
suburb or another city and live in a mixed community of those wishing to be
"Americans." But other factors
are also happening. The diverse and
newly arrived groups are growing in numbers and this deserves further reflection. Certainly, regional habits, practices, and
cuisine become more diversified over time, though communication today allows
for a blurring of boundaries and manner of speech among groups.
Patterns and Differences over
issue of amalgamation raises a deeper question verging on an academic exercise,
namely patterns within states, regions or cities that hasten the "melting
pot effect." Geographers encouraged
us to construct multiple maps over time to show change and mobility -- and some
of this melting effect. How rapidly are
these changes occurring among and within ethnic groups in our mobile
society? Midwestern rural ethnic
enclaves along with urban ghettos have eroded over time. The total picture of change is incomplete,
for more research needs to be done. The
emerging answer is found in a variety of ethnic studies related to the history
of various ethnic groups in this nation, or to migration (forced and otherwise)
of Native American nations and tribes.
observations as to changes over four decades of U.S. Census data (1980, 1990,
2000, and 2010) are listed here. Data
gathering in the early 1980s occurred in pre-computer data recording days when
paper files and books were stored in state data centers. The entire 1980 data for states as well as
that of Census tracts of 25 major metropolitan areas were gleaned at the data
center at Lexington's University of Kentucky. Later data was digitized and is far easier to
access, analyze, and compare. Today national
ethnic maps for 2000 and 2010 are readily available both on our own Website
<earthhealing.info> and on a variety of others. Here are some general observations about
major ethnic groups with plurality noted on state maps. For interesting historic details, a vast
array of materials is available on the Internet:
Germans (code light blue, see Appendix 3)
have traditionally been the leading ethnic group in America, even though this predominance
is often a surprise to casual observers.
In the 2010 Census almost fifty million Americans claimed German as
their primary ethnic group (about the same number as in 1980); these reside in
a broad Germanic band from Pennsylvania to the Pacific. Early on, German vied with English as the
primary group in what became the United States. Had German influence at the time of the
Constitution been greater, German would have become American's principal
language or co-language. In the 19th
century sizeable rural western Midwest surface areas were primarily inhabited by
Germans from Russia;3 the designation
today is not claimed by many inhabitants who call themselves
"German," and thus these areas were excluded from 2010 maps. A higher German plurality is noted in the
1990 Census most likely due to its higher placement on the self-reporting
forms.4 For instance, compare
Jasper County, Iowa for the four decades.
Swiss people (also light blue) are of Germanic, French, or Italian
origin with concentrations in several states of the Midwest, but not sufficient for a
plurality in those states. They are
designated in the 2000 maps by the letter "Z" (see Appendix
4 for Ethnic Letter Key).
Interestingly, those with even partial Swiss ethnicity are still
regarded as Swiss citizens. Prior to the
First World War, those claiming to be Austrian as a land of origin could have
been from Slavic and other origins.
Alsatians often were grouped as Germans or French depending on time of
arrival and individual declaration.
Dutch (code dark brown) predominate in southwest Minnesota, several counties in central
Iowa, parts of eastern Wisconsin, and most heavily in west
central Michigan. The older Dutch settlements from Colonial
times in the Mid-Atlantic regions have somewhat faded even though the
pronounced Dutch cultural marks are still visible.
settled during the 19th century mostly in the Midwest with concentrations in Wisconsin near Green Bay, as well as in northwestern Illinois (both areas are marked) and
in northern Indiana. These still persist in both rural and nearby
Luxembourgers arrived in smaller numbers but also have a keen sense
of ethnic consciousness as do the other Lowlanders. Significant settlements are found in Iowa and Wisconsin.
(dark green color) is a major grouping in our country and generally second to
Germans, though now being exceeded by Hispanics. Irish are found in significant
numbers in all states but especially in New England and New York. Besides the northeastern states from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, counties with Irish
pluralities are not numerous but do crop up in surprising places such as the
Ozarks, Appalachia, and Montana. The category generally refers to those whose
ancestors came from Ireland but includes some who are
more precisely "Scotch-Irish."
Scottish people are also highly dispersed throughout the United
States but are not nearly as numerous as the Irish and do not predominate in
any county. They are closely related to
the "Scotch-Irish," who
emigrated from Scotland to Ireland prior to coming to America.
Welsh (olive green) is a smaller ethnic group;5
Welsh people clustered near eastern (especially Pennsylvania) and western mining areas
and parts of the rural Midwest and have a surprising near plurality
concentration in southern Idaho.
English (code tan) in the 1980 Census was still a strong
contender for first place with Germans, but this abruptly changed by the 1990
Census when the rise of "American" as a designation became more
pronounced in Appalachia and certain parts of our country. The fading of English was not due to
population decline (though birth rates have been lower for many white groups);
perhaps it was due to the placing of English in a top position on
self-reporting Census forms in 1980 (49.6 million English) in contrast to its
placement in 1990 (32.7 million English).4
French (light green) as designated on these maps include
French Canadian, especially in New England, as well as Cajun, especially in Louisiana and nearby Gulf states. The French are uniformly scattered as a
non-plurality through the country but do have strong concentrations in mainly
northern New England states as well as New York, as well as plurality in
Michigan counties. More often French are actually French from Canada, though there is a strong
Huguenot strain of ancestry dating to Colonial times due to migration directly
from Europe. Alsatians of the 19th century migrations
identify as French.
Italians (code purple) are quite strong as an ethnic group in
the lower New Englands, New York, and New Jersey and likewise extend into Pennsylvania and Ohio. Some 51 "Little Italy" sites are
designated mostly in the Northeast and the Midwest, with several also in California in three major cities. None of the counties of the West had a
plurality of Italians with the exception of southern Colorado.
Scandinavians (code Plum) include mainly Norwegians
(with several plurality counties when taken singly) along with Swedes, Danes,
and Icelanders and those who designate themselves as simply Scandinavians;
this makes computations more difficult.
However, such totals clarify a given county's consciousness of its
Finnish people are also Northern Europeans who are a strong
contingent in upper Michigan and are found in strong
numbers in a number of Midwestern Scandinavian counties. Many Finns and Scandinavians have dispersed
among various Metropolitan areas and retirees have moved to Florida.
Baltics (Lithuanians, Latvians, and some Estonians) are Baltic
people found generally in northeastern and Midwestern urban areas, with Chicago being their center. In the 19th century Lithuanians were drawn to
mining operations in Pennsylvania and elsewhere.
Slavic and Eastern European Groups
Polish (code peach for all Slavic group) is the most populous
with areas marked "P," Czech "Cz", Ukrainian "U",
and Russian "R" with the latter including sizeable numbers of Jewish
people (sub-designated in earlier metropolitan maps from non-U.S. Census data
sources). Jewish ancestry is also listed
within Polish, German, Hungarian, and Lithuanian data. Polish is a plurality in a few counties
mainly in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Nebraska, and Wisconsin.
Czechs are predominant in several counties or portions in Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and central Texas, but are losing plurality
over time as comparing maps will show.
Ukrainians generally migrated to eastern and Midwestern areas but Billings County in North Dakota had a plurality in
Slovaks, Slovenes, and Serbs were more
urban-oriented and found in eastern and Midwestern cities. Croatians have been more
maritime-oriented and found in southern California and elsewhere.
Bosnians arrived in large numbers after the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Wendish people are concentrated in Lee County, Texas.
Hungarians and Romanians (though non-Slavic) generally
settled in Northeast and Great Lakes urban areas with dispersal.
Mediterranean & Middle East
Greeks are found in many urban areas of the East but also in
much of the urban United States, though with no county plurality. Maltese are co-residents with Greeks
in the New York city area. Albanians
are generally found on the eastern seaboard with a focal point in the New York City metropolitan area. Several New England states along with New York list Albanians. Increasing numbers of Middle Easterners are
coming along with Turkic groups:
Arabs, Chaldeans, and Assyrians to the Detroit metropolitan areas as well
as other Eastern states and Texas and California. Arrivals have been heavier from Iraq since the Gulf wars;
Turkish and Central Asian people (e.g., Afghans) to the
New York/New Jersey areas and other urban areas especially since 1990;
Armenians and Persians are generally from previous
migrations in the early 20th century, the former concentrating in the East and
the latter in California but with some dispersal over
Hispanics (code pink and red for 50% or more) are definitely
making a mark on the ethnic maps in a comparison of the four decades. It is like a welcoming "mushroom cloud
from Mexico" in the western part of
the country and a states-by-state viewing from California to Texas and up to Washington will show this in the
west. Some other mapmakers divide
Hispanics into Mexicans in the West, Cubans in Florida, and Puerto Ricans in New York, and Salvadorians into the
Mid-Atlantic region. However, movement
of these sub-category Hispanics is making this less precise with large number
of Central and South Americans on the West Coast. Furthermore, in areas of the East Coast and Great Lakes composite Hispanics
constitute a plurality in a surprising number of counties in 2010, including
those in the Chicago metropolitan area. By 2010 the majority of the 254 counties of Texas that were formerly a
plurality of German or mixed German/English are now Hispanic.
Portuguese (code steel gray) can be called Latinos as well and are
found in large numbers in the southern New England states, in Mid-Atlantic states, and in central California and Hawaii. Originally Portuguese-speaking Cape Verdeans, Azoreans, and
Brazilians are also found especially in the southern New England states and in the latter
case in New Jersey.
Basques come from Spain, are few in number, have a
strong ethnic consciousness, and are concentrated in the West.6
African Americans (code gold or heavy gold for over 50% in a county) are
a major American grouping. Racial data
reflect mainly this group and are self-identified or by others as
"Blacks," even with mixed racial origins. African Americans are represented in every
state but show a strong plurality in a vast strip of land starting in Eastern Virginia and going through the Deep South to eastern Texas. This group includes all descendants of early
deportation from Africa prior to the abolition of the slave trade. A minor sub-category designating recent
arrivals from parts of Sub-Saharan Africa are indicated on the 2000 maps as
"Af." The latter groups
generally appear in major urban metropolitan areas. "Hispanic" populations include a
minority of those who are racially black (some Dominicans and African Americans
from Spanish-speaking Caribbean areas); these are more or less concentrated in
the New York City metropolitan area and parts of the East
Asian Americans (code blue-green) are also a composite grouping of
Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Indo-Americans, and others. The only state with a plurality is Hawaii, and a number of counties (San Francisco and Santa Clara) along with ones in Virginia, New Jersey, and the state of Washington now have pluralities of
Asian Americans taken as a composite group.
As an ethnic group they are actually the fastest growing in our
country. In some metropolitan areas the
substantial sub-groups (Chinese, Japanese, etc.) are indicated based on
available racial data (see Appendix 5).
Native Americans (code yellow and dark yellow where 50% or more of the
county) are listed according to the decennial Census figures for the entire
grouping. Many Native Americans from
various tribes and nations show7 pride in ancestry especially in the
past half century. Native Alaskans are
included in this grouping. In some areas
where reservations (I.R.) comprise a portion of the county and are not
contiguous with county boundaries, the Native American plurality of the county
and reservation boundaries are marked (see Appendix 6).8
Oceanics and Hawaiians comprise the smallest racial grouping and these
are found for the greater part of Hawaii and in California, with representation in
Heart of Dixie is also the buckle of the African American belt that extends
from the Atlantic Coast to Texas. Much like its neighboring states, Alabama has a major African
American population comprising over one-quarter of the residents. This group predominates in the central and
southern rural areas as well as in the Birmingham, Montgomery, and Mobile urban areas.
Alabama is an American state with
over one-sixth of its population listing "American" or "United States" as their primary
ethnic choice. The phenomenon actually
means a confusion or erosion in ethnicity, or perhaps a desire to separate from
a minority that is now present in the given area. The specified white population follows the
Southern pattern of English, German, Irish, Scotch, and Scotch-Irish with far
lower representations of other groups such as the French in the south and
Italians, Greeks, Slavs, and Dutch in urban centers. The northern counties have similar southern
Appalachian and low African American populations as do the immediate
Asian Americans either considered alone or "in combination with
others" (a Census designation for mixed ethnicity) increased dramatically
from 39,000 to 67,000 in the first decade of the 21st century; these are
principally found in urban and academic areas as well as around Huntsville in the north.
Native Americans are not numerous and are scattered through the state
but with sizeable concentrations in Washington, Escambia, and Lawrence Counties. The state has a federally
recognized reservation of Creeks in Escambia County and seven small
state-recognized places. For Alabama, the ethnic choice features
the southeastern Native Americans who called this territory home long before
the arrival of Europeans. The Southeast
originally included the "five civilized tribes" (Cherokees, Choctaws,
Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles) of which Alabama was the geographic center
(see Oklahoma for museum dedicated to them). Local museums and cultural centers celebrate
County Historical Museum
101 East Main Street
Hispanics decreased from 1980 to 1990 and then increased by 2000
to 76,000; there was a doubling to 186,000 in 2010, the increase of 145% is the
second highest in the nation just behind South Carolina. In recent years with a sudden rise from 1.7
to almost 4% of population has precipitated some restrictive measures against
illegal immigrants in this state along with those of Arizona. Many Hispanics were attracted to seasonal
agricultural work and public service jobs that others refused to undertake. By 2010, in Dekalb and Franklin Counties
Hispanics are of equal number as those called "American." A number of other counties with large numbers
of Hispanics include Marshall and Jefferson Counties.
Great Northern State is over twice the size of Texas and yet this highly
scenic and rugged state is very sparsely populated. Alaska can be roughly divided into a northern
and western area in which Alaskan Natives predominate and a southern and
southeastern coastal region with a mixed population coming mainly from the
lower 48 states. The military
installations and the petroleum-producing facilities have brought people of
various ethnic backgrounds.
has over 40% of the total Alaskan population (2010) and resembles in ethnic
composition the urban populations of the lower Northwestern states. Besides Native Alaskans, Asian Americans,
African Americans and some Pacific Islanders, one can find 60% of the state's
Hispanic population and sizeable numbers of other ethnic groups: German,
English, Irish, Scandinavian (mainly Norwegian and Swedish), Italian, French,
and Scottish with smaller numbers of Dutch, Polish and others.
2010, the Alaskan Natives (Aleut,
Eskimos, Tinsits and other Native Americans), whether considered alone or in
combination with others, number 138,000; these inhabit the greater Alaskan land
mass but comprise only 16% of the total population. Almost half of all the listed federally
recognized tribes and units (listed by the National Conference of State
Legislatures) constitute Alaskan native villages. In some of the Census districts one may note,
native peoples comprise 90% or more of the population.
* Totem Heritage Center
601 Deermont Street
Ketchikan, AK 99901
2010, about 5.5% of the total Alaskan population was Hispanic or Latino
of any race. Almost the same number
(38,000) is Asian Americans who are generally found in the southern
coastal arc. African Americans
have a similar pattern of residence with about 33,000 inhabitants or 4% of the
Note: In Alaska, Census districts do not
necessarily follow the same boundary lines as the standard "boroughs"
found in Alaska, which resemble counties in
other states. This makes designating
areas a little more problematic.
Grand Canyon State is a major retirement
destination that attempts to beat its brutal summer heat through air
conditioning. The rapidly expanding
population consists of many ethic groups: German, English, Irish, Italian,
Polish, Swedish, French, Scottish, Dutch, Norwegian, Russian, Welsh, Czech and
people from the Middle East (Armenian, Arabic, Greek and others). These are
generally second or third generation Americans in contrast to foreign-born
immigrants who reside in eastern and coastal urban America.
Anglo or English-speaking white
Americans is a designated term found in areas of heavy Hispanic and minority
concentrations. Retired white people may tend to an amalgam "Anglo"
* Arizona Historical Society (also Flagstaff, Tempe, and Yuma)
East Second Street
Tucson, AZ 85719
Irish Americans in the Southwest and elsewhere in America often are hesitant to be identified with
"Anglo" from a cultural antagonism to British dominance in the
previous centuries, and may prefer their own cultural groups for continued
Irish Cultural Center
1106 North Central Avenue
Phoenix, AZ 85004
Hispanics have increased rapidly through direct migration from Mexico and Central America, and have advanced from
one-sixth of the population in 1980, to over one-quarter in 2000, and to 29.1%
or 1,900,000 people in 2010.
* Arizona Latino Arts & Cultural
147 East Adams Street
Phoenix, AZ 85004
Arizona with 300,000 Native
Americans can be called the Western American Indian State. In contrast to Oklahoma being the crucible of forced
migration of Eastern and Plains Indians in the 19th century, Arizona's native population has been
here for a millennia. The Navajo and
Hopi are in the northeastern portion with other tribes scattered throughout
parts of the state in reservations and in urban areas: Yuma, Papago (the Tohono O'Odham
Nation), Hualapai, Paiute, Pima, and Western Apache. Arizona has more reservation land
(23 million acres) than any state.
* Phoenix Indian Center (Also Prescott)
4520 North Central Ave,
Phoenix, AZ 85012
Asian Americans doubled in the first decade of this century from 92,000
to 177,000 in 2010, and they are concentrated in Phoenix and Tucson.
quarter-of-a-million African Americans are concentrated in the two major
Arkansas can be regarded as an ethnic
border state being the western end of the Appalachian belt. In the northwest corner, Arkansas resembles the states further
west. But the diagonal line running from
Mississippi County in the northeast to Little
River County in the southwest resembles the traditional African American
belt. Even though African Americans are
a predominant group, Arkansas contains less than half the
percentage (16%) of neighboring Mississippi. However, Crittenden, St. Francis, Lee,
Phillips, and Chicot (delta) Counties have over fifty percent African
Americans. The state capital of Little Rock has a heavy concentration of
over one-third as well, along with its ethnically diverse white population of
residents of Polish, Italian, French, Scottish, and Dutch ancestry.
Arkansas may be called the Ozark State though the ethnic
composition of the northern half of the state resembles the population of Tennessee and Kentucky, that is,
"American" along with English, German, and Irish/Scotch-Irish.
may call the Ozark highlands that extend into Missouri as home to a distinct
sub-ethnic or emerging ethnic group.
Like Appalachians further to the East but ethnically closely related,
those Ozark folks have very distinct traits, songs, foods, and other
refinements of their region, and cherish them highly.
* Ozark Folk Center
Ozark Folk Center State Park
1032 Park Avenue
Mountain View, AR 72560-6008
Arkansas contains 22,000 Native
Americans, who are well dispersed, with the strongest showing in
northwestern counties (Benton, Crawford, Washington, and Sebastian) bordering
heavily Native American Oklahoma.
Asian American population of the state has increased dramatically from
7,000 in 1980, to 12,500 in 1990, to 20,000 in 2000, and then to 36,000 in
2010. These are found throughout the
state but more so in Pulaski and Sebastian Counties.
Hispanics show the same immense growth rate as found elsewhere in
the South, from 18,000 in 1980, to 20,000 in 1990, to four times that amount or
87,000 at the turn of the century; since then the population has doubled again
to 186,000 by 2010. They live in the
western portion of the state with predominance in Benton, Carroll, Sebastian, Sevier,
and Washington Counties and large contingents in others including Pulaski County.
Golden State with over 37 million people
is more a nation unto itself rather than merely one of the United States. Its relatively small number of counties means
that ethnic data is smothered by the predominant Hispanic concentration. California has more English, Scottish,
Hispanics, Asian Americans, Portuguese, Dutch, and Danish than any other
state. It can be ethnically designated
as the Persian, Filipino, Chinese, Oceanic, Korean,
or Japanese American State. Italians and Portuguese are quite numerous in
central California. Basques are present in the northeast as well
a seafaring Croatians in San Pedro and Danes in Solvang. San Diego has a "Little
510 West 7th Street
San Pedro, CA 90731
* Elverhoj Museum of History & Art
1624 Elvehoy Way
Solvang, CA 93464
1669 Columbia Street
San Diego, CA
from both Mexico and the rest of Latin America have continued the dramatic Hispanic
population increases witnessed in many other states, expanding in California from 4.5 million in 1980 to
7.7 million in 1990 and almost 11 million in 2000. This approaches one-third of California's total population and 45%
of Los Angeles County's. The Central Valley and northern California are becoming strongly
Fort Mason Center Building D
San Francisco, CA 94123
one-third of a million Native Americans live both in major urban areas
and in or near the 76 reservations located throughout the state; these are more
numerous in San Diego County, but are also in Riverside and in northern Modoc,
Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties. One-quarter of reservations are identified.
* Agua Caliente Cultural Museum
219 South Palm Canyon Drive
Palm Springs, CA 92262
of the Americas Museum
12110 Cuyamaca College
El Cajon, CA 92019; www.cuyamaca.net/museum
has one-third of all Asian Americans in the United States, climbing from
1,250,000 in 1980 to 2,850,000 in 1990 and then to 3,700,000 in 2000, and to
nearly 5,000,000 in 2010. Los Angeles County (larger than some states)
has one-and-a-third million. One-third
of San Francisco's population, or a quarter of a million, is
Asian and thus the group with plurality; so is Santa Clara County with over one half-million
Asian Americans as well as Alameda County with nearly 400,000 of that
group; populous San Diego has one-third of a million
Asian Americans. Chinatown in San Francisco is the largest such Chinese
concentration in America and goes back to the 1830s,
first composed of farm laborers, then with gold rush people, and then with
railroad hands. From humble beginnings
came Chinese restaurants and other businesses.
Currently Chinese immigrants gravitate to urban areas and research
* Chinese Historical Society of America
965 Clay Street
San Francisco, CA 94108
* Japanese American National Museum
369 East 1st Street
Los Angeles, CA 90012
* Korean American Museum
3780 Wilshire Boulevard #
Los Angeles, CA 90010
* Thai Cultural Center of the San Francisco Bay Area
1911 Russell Street
Berkeley, CA 94703; www.me.com/viranda/Thai
* Vietnamese Cultural Center
2849 South White Road
San Jose, CA 95148
The highly successful and culturally conscious Persians from Iran are most numerous in California.
9265 Dowdy Drive #105
San Diego, CA 92126; www.pccsd.org
African American numbers have held steady in California in the first decade of this century
and account for two-and-a-quarter million.
Almost 40% of these are found in Los Angeles County.
Community and Cultural Center
6116 Telegraph Avenue
Oakland, CA 94609
Cornish Americans are few as declared first ancestry, but an estimated
two million Americans have Cornish ancestry.
These are often classified as British and thus are overlooked as an
ethnic group. Cornish miners came to the
Upper Peninsula of Michigan in the 19th century and then followed the Gold Rush
to California. Green Valley (Nevada County) was at one time 60% Cornish
and celebrates its annual Kernewek Lowender, the world's largest Cornish
-- Other --
* Imperial County Historical Society (Anglo/English)
373 East Aten Road
Imperial, CA 92251
240 Plymouth Street
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Community of Hollywood
1203 N. Vermont Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90029-1703
Peter Chaldean Cathedral
1627 Jamacha Way
El Cajon, CA 92019
de Portugal (numerous festivals)
P.O. Box 18277
San Jose, CA 95158-8277
Centennial State (established in 1876) has been a Germanic state now
becoming Hispanic. In recent decades, Colorado has become somewhat
ethnically diverse due to the rapidly expanding population in the Denver metropolitan area including Jefferson, Adams, Douglas, and Arapahoe Counties (almost half the total state
population) and in Boulder County. In the Denver area, one finds a wide
variety of ethnic groups: Germans, English, Irish, Italian, Dutch,
Scandinavian, Slavic, Scottish, Welsh, and Austrian people. Both El Paso County (Colorado Springs) and Pueblo County (Pueblo) share in this growing
diversity. Western Colorado is sparsely populated with
Germans, English, Irish, and Americans.
of Colorado outside of the corridors of Interstate-25 and Interstate-70
is sparsely settled, with many picturesque mountains in the western half of the
state. When comparing the sequence of
maps for the various decades one can observe how Colorado is becoming more Hispanic. Over one million Hispanics (one-fifth of the
total population) reside in counties throughout the state, though still heavily
concentrated in the central and southern portions of Colorado.
Chavez Cultural Center
1410 20th Street
Greeley, CO 80639
Native Americans (56,000) do not predominate in any county, but two Ute
reservations are in the southeastern corner of the state and extend into
neighboring states. The Native American
tribes or nations figure strongly into the history of the West as is found in
local museums and other centers.
Pueblo History Museum
Pueblo, CO 81003
little over 200,000 African Americans account for 4% of the total state
population and are principally in the large cities.
small total number of Asian Americans now numbering 139,000 in 2010, but
up from 96,000 in 2000, are more numerous in suburban Denver and in Boulder and
other educational and research centers.
Anglo/English are not a listed category as such but frequently when
contrasted with minorities (Hispanics, Asians, Africans, and Native Americans),
this becomes an amalgam of European and some Middle East white people. They can be grouped as a major contingent of
the "pioneers" migrating to and establishing roots in this state.
* Centennial Village Museum
1475 A Street (at Island Grove Park)
Greeley, CO 80631
(970) 350-9220; www.greeleygov.com
Constitution or Nutmeg State is witnessing its heavy
white composition weaken in recent years to three-quarters of the
population. Connecticut's racial composition is
still represented by older Yankee groups such as the English, Scottish, Dutch,
and Welsh. The state, together with its
other southern New England neighbors, experienced a rapid diversification of
population when becoming a major industrial center in the 19th and early 20th
centuries. Among these immigrant groups
were the predominant ethnic one making this the Italian State.
* Italian Center of Stamford
1620 Newfield Avenue
Stamford, CN 06905
(203) 322-6941; www.italiancenter.org
emigrated in large numbers during the industrial period. Likewise French
Canadians came southward to work in the factories. Other arrivals in that period include Polish
and other Slavic groups (Russians, Ukrainians, Czechs, Slovaks, and Yugoslavs
among others), Scandinavians, Baltics, Greeks and other Middle Eastern groups,
Romanians, Portuguese, and Hungarians.
Currently, the Connecticut southwest is a New York metropolitan bedroom
Hispanics and Latinos including Puerto Ricans, Cubans and others
have increased rapidly in recent years and comprise 480,000 (2010), up from
320,000 in one decade and comprising 13.4% of total population. In fact, two (Hartford and Fairfield) of the eight counties are
now predominantly Hispanic, having replaced Italian.
non-white quarter of the population are generally late arrivals though African
Americans (currently one-tenth of the population) were present in colonial
times. This grouping went from 310,000
in 2000 to 362,000 ten years later.
Asian Americans, including a wide variety of sub-groups, are found in
many urban technical and academic areas, and rose from 82,000 in 2000 to
136,000 in 2010, or about 4% of total population. The
2010 Census indicates about 11,000 Native Americans, with a significant
concentration in New London County where four Paugussett and
Pequot Indian Reservations are located.
* Mashantucket Pequot Museum
Mixed: African American, Irish, Italian, Jewish, and
Ukrainian. Quite often the mixture of ethnic groups does
not of itself lead to amalgamation, but rather the desire to celebrate
diversity. This is pride in holding on
to a treasure of ethnic diversity, a struggle to save an endangered species.
* Ethnic Heritage Center
270 Fitch Street, Building #1
New Haven, CN 06515
First State is truly a border state,
with its large northern city of Wilmington resembling the ethnic
diversity of the upper Atlantic coast, and its rural southern portion similar
to that of the Tidewater states immediately to the south and east.
predominant group (192,000 in 2010) is African American as is in
neighboring Maryland; this group comprises 21.4%
of the population.
Hispanics increased rapidly in a decade from about 5% in 2000 to
8.2% (73,000) of the population in 2010.
ten years Asian Americans increased from 16,000 to 28,500 in 2010.
4,000 Native Americans are found with one state recognized Indian
reservation for the Lenape tribe in central Kent County. At the time of the first white settlements,
the Nanticokes inhabited the southern part of Delaware with tribal headquaters
today in Bridgeton, New Jersey.
white population includes a range of diversity as found in neighboring states
with its variety of Irish, Italians, English, Germans, Irish, Italians, French,
Polish, Greeks and others. Delaware was first colonized for a
short time in the 17th Century by Swedes and then by Dutch who imprinted the cultural
* Zwaanendael Museum
102 Kings Highway at Savannah Road
Lewes, DE 19958
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
nation's capital can be considered to be the heart of a metropolitan area that
includes parts of Maryland and northern Virginia (see Maryland map). The District's population has actually been
declining from over 700,000 a few decades ago to 572,000 in the 2000 and then
back up to 602,000 in the 2010 Census.
African Americans alone or in combination dropped from 350,000 in 2000 to
314,000 (52.2%) in 2010.
Hispanics, especially Central Americans, have increased from
45,000 (7.9%) in 2000 to 55,000 (9.1%) in 2010.
Asian Americans alone and in combination went from 18,000 in one decade
to 27,000 (4.5%).
Native Americans only number a few thousand DC residents, still the District
is the appropriate place to locate the major museum featuring all the various
Native American tribes or nations within the confines of our country.
National Museum of the American Indian
and Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20026
the District are also Irish, German, English, Middle Eastern, Italian,
Scottish, French, Slavic (mainly Polish and Russian), Scandinavian and Greek
people, along with a host of others, generally associated with governmental
operations. It is fitting that this is
the center of America's collective culture.
* American Folklife Center
101 Independence Ave., SE
Washington, DC 20540-4610
* Washington Sangerbund
2434 Wisconsin Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20007
Sunshine State mirrors the national ethnic
composition. However, Florida's northern panhandle
resembles patterns of the neighboring Deep South with heavy African American
concentrations. In the main peninsula, German is more prevalent along with a
mix of diverse ethnic groups, with increasing Hispanic numbers from Miami to points north. The various urban areas along the Atlantic
and Gulf coasts have a rich diversity of ethnic groups besides the German,
Irish, and English: Italian, Slavic (especially Russian and Polish), French, Scandinavian,
Greek, and other Middle Eastern, Hungarian and other Eastern European, Welsh,
and Dutch. This diversity exists all
along the coasts and interiors except the panhandle; it includes winter
second-home French Canadians on the Atlantic and visitors from Ontario on the Gulf Coast.
African Americans number 3,000,000 in 2010 and reside in various parts of
the state, and these are especially predominant in the Panhandle region as an
extension of Deep South patterns.
almost one-half million Asian Americans are concentrated in the most
urban counties (Broward, Miami-Dade, Orange, Duval and Hillsborough).
Native Americans numbering 71,000 in 2010 are highly dispersed, though
reservations for the Seminoles and Miccosukee exist in the Everglades in the southern portion of
Hispanics, numbering 4,223,000 in 2010, account for one-quarter
of the total state population and thus the predominant ethnic group. The growing Latino population has increased from
858,000 and doubled in 1980 to 1,572,000, and again to 2,700,000 in 2000, and
then again to this total. Miami-Dade County, which is now 65% Hispanic,
is home to 40% of Florida's Hispanics. The many immigrants from across the straits
make this the Cuban State.
parts of Latin America are also represented and thus Florida could be termed ethnically
the Caribbean State or the Haitian State.
Haiti Cultural Center
Northeast 59th Terrace
Miami, FL 33137
* Cuban American National Council
1223 Southwest 4th Street
Miami, FL 33135-2407
* Old Spanish Quarter
St. Augustine, FL
* Mission San Luis
2020 West Mission Road
Tallahassee, FL 32304
– Others –
Florida attracts people from various
climates and temperaments as a major retirement destination, and so one finds ethnic
groups originating from milder climates seeking to winter and often remain in Florida such as German, Italian,
Jewish, Portuguese, Slovak, and Swedish residents and retirees.
Finnish Community Club
908 Lehto Lane
Lake Worth, FL 33461
American German Club of Palm Beaches
5111 Latana Road
Lake Worth, FL 33463
* Heritage Museum: The Greek Community of
P.O. Box 5004
Tarpon Springs, FL 34688
1314 20th Street
Vero Beach, FL 32960
Cultural Society of Naples
1100 Fifth Avenue South,
Naples, FL 34102
Museum of Florida
301 Washington Avenue
Miami Beach, FL 33139
American Institute of Polish Culture
1440 79th Street Causeway, Suite 117
Miami, FL 33141
* Portuguese American Cultural Center
1200 Palm Harbor Parkway
Palm Coast, FL 32137
* The Slovak Garden: Slovak Cultural Center Museum & Library
3110 Howell Branch Road
Winter Park, Florida 32792
* Museum of Seminole County (Near original Swedish
300 Bush Boulevard
Sanford, FL 32773
Georgia, the Peach State, is part of the Southern
Black belt with 31.5% (3 million) of the total state population being African
American in 2010. These African Americans
are dispersed throughout the state with higher representations in the central
and southern rural portions as well as in the urban areas of Atlanta (Fulton County is 45% African American), Columbia, and Savannah.
* Tubman African American Museum
340 Walnut Street
Macon, GA 31201
white population follows the same pattern as neighboring states with a strong
"American" representation as well as English, Germans, and
Irish/Scotch-Irish. The northern portion
resembles the Appalachian counties of the neighboring states of Tennessee and Alabama. The large rapidly increasing Atlanta metropolitan area has a rich
diversity of ethnic groups ranging from Germans to Irish, French, Scandinavian,
Slavic and Middle East representations.
Clark County (Athens) has a diverse racial
population, being an academic center. Savannah has a famous Irish festival
* St. Marys, Georgia
Cultural Center Atlanta
1197 Peachtree Street
Atlanta, GA 30361
* Savannah Irish Festival
301 West Ogelthorpe Ave.
Savannah, GA 31401
Breman Jewish Heritage & Holocaust Museum
Spring Street, NW
Atlanta, GA 30309
other states, Georgia attracts Hispanics,
who now comprise almost 9% of the total state population and predominate in
four counties. Increases are dramatic:
from 61,000 Hispanics in 1980, to 109,000 in 1990, to 435,000 in 2000, and
doubling again to 854,000 in 2010.
Gwinnett (20% of Hispanics), Fulton, and Dekalb Counties have large numbers.
2010 a majority of Asian Americans of 314,000 (3.2% of the total
population) are in Atlanta and immediately surrounding
counties with concentrations at other academic centers.
32,000 (2010) Native Americans who reside throughout Georgia have no state reservations;
still Georgia has been home to the Muskogee and Hitchiti tribes.
Aloha State stands apart from the rest of the United States both in
distance (a thousand miles out in the Pacific) and in ethnic composition. While it is truly the native Hawaiian State, it might equally bear the
title of the Asian American one, since so much of the population is
composed of people from Asia (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Thai, and others) as well
as people from the other Pacific Islands such as the Samoans. Hawaii is the only state where the
majority of the population is Asian American.
Native Hawaiian people (about 10% of the inhabitants) have been
outdistanced in the past century by mainland Asian immigrants and their
descendants, who number alone or in combination 57% of the state's total
those listed as Americans, the white residents (less than a quarter of the
total population) are comprised of Germans and English with the third largest
ethnic group being the Portuguese. There
are also Irish, Italian, Slavic (mainly Polish), Scottish and Scandinavian
inhabitants, mainly living in Honolulu County (Oahu Island), where almost
three-quarters of the Island's population is concentrated.
the Honolulu area where Asians predominate one finds a diversity of other
groups including 121,000 Hispanics and Latinos or about 9% of the
population, whereas in 2000 there were 88,000.
2010, African Americans number 38,000 alone or in combination.
American Indians alone or in combination number 33,000 in 2010.
Native Hawaiian population, though a
minority now in state population, has grown in ethnic consciousness in recent
years and is making great efforts to preserve its identity and to counter
certain stereotypes with positive alternatives.
* Kauai Museum
4428 Rice Street
* Hawaii's Plantation Village
94-695 Waipahu Street
Waipahu, HI 96797
Gem State is rather sparsely populated
except in the Snake River Valley. Here one finds the great majority of the Idaho white people (90% of the
total state populations). The northern
panhandle is predominately Germanic with Scandinavian in second place, and thus
the state resembles neighboring Montana and Washington. The southeastern half of the state is more
closely related to neighboring Utah in its English ethnic
composition. In the Snake River Valley, one finds the predominant
Germanic population plus English, Irish, Scotch and Scotch-Irish, along with
sizeable concentrations of another Celtic group, the Welsh in Oneida County.
Ada County, with one quarter of the
total state population of 1.6 million, is quite ethnically diverse; this county
contains the above mentioned groups along with Scandinavians (Swedish, Danish
and Norwegian), Dutch, and Italian. The
southwestern portion of the state is home to a number of Basques, who are more
numerous in neighboring Nevada.
Basque Museum and Cultural Center
611 Grove Street
Boise, ID 83702
English and Danish Americans, a number of residents of Swiss descent as well as
Welsh people the southwestern portion.
Since the 1860s a Welsh American cluster in southern Idaho is the largest such
concentration outside of Wales. While Welsh have been in America from the earliest English
settlements, over time they have become dispersed and are often included in an
"Anglo" or "British" enumeration.
* Malad Valley Welsh Festival (Eistedd Fod)
Malad Valley Welsh Society,
Malad Valley, ID 83252
great surprise has been that a number of rural southern counties have recently acquired
a plurality of Hispanic ancestry from one county in 2000 (101,000
people) to a dozen in 2010 (176,000).
Many of these are counties with small overall rural populations and the
division of German and English numbers allows Hispanic with often less than a
third of the total county population to predominate.
37,000 Native Americans alone or in combination while scattered are more
numerous in counties containing the quarter of a million acres of reservations
for the Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, and Nez Perce tribal
nations. They are in towns as well.
African Americans taken alone number less than 10,000 in 2010 and 16,000
in combination; these generally reside in urban areas.
Asian Americans increased from 12,000 to 19,000 from 2000 to 2010 and
reflect the increase of this group throughout our country.
Empire is represented by virtually all American ethnic groups. One may divide the state into the Chicago metropolitan area and a
rural downstate portion. The northern
farmland counties are more Germanic with Swedish and Belgian concentrations.
* Belgian Museum of the Quad Cities
for Belgian Culture
712 18th Avenue
Moline, IL 61265
Southern Illinois reflects Ohio Valley patterns with American,
English and Irish/Scotch-Irish. In the Deep South or "Little Egypt"
numerous African Americans make this truly "Delta country." In eastern suburbs of St. Louis, one finds African Americans
along with various Slavic groups. The
French had early settlements along the Mississippi and traces in this ancestry
data are apparent.
Chicago, the "Windy City" continues to be refreshed
by its many older and recent arrivals, so many in fact that it's hard to
highlight. The large numbers of Eastern
Europeans (Poles, Czechs, Ukrainians, Baltics, Serbs, Slovaks, and others)
allow Illinois to be called the Polish or Lithuanian State. A visit to Chicago gives a chance to experience
America's diversity with Iraqis,
Asian Indian and Hispanics living in formerly Swedish, Dutch and German
areas. Baltic Americans are found in
large numbers in the Chicago metropolitan area with a
long-time concentration of Lithuanians in Marquette Park.
Museum of Lithuanian Culture
6500 South Pulaski Road
Chicago, IL 60629
* Chicago Latvian Center
4146 North Elston Avenue
Chicago, IL 60618
* Polish Museum of America
984 North Milwaukee Avenue
Chicago, IL 60642-4101
Bosnians immigrated from war-ravaged former Yugoslavia in the 1990s; their
destinations were generally parts of the Midwest.
Bosnian Herzegovinan American Community Center
1016 West Argle Street
Chicago, IL 60640
-- Others –
4740 North Western Avenue
Chicago, IL 60625
* Hellenic Museum and Cultural Center
601 West Adams Avenue, 4th Floor
Chicago, IL 60607
1621 North 39th Street
Stone Park, IL 60165
448 West Berry Avenue
Chicago, IL 60657
14252 Main Street
Lemont, IL 60439
* Swedish American Museum
5211 North Clark Street
Chicago, IL 60640
Hispanics represent that mass migration that actually yielded our
greatest 21st century surprise in the 2010 changing ethnic picture. This has occurred in Chicago where African Americans and
Hispanics (mainly Mexican) became tied for Cook County plurality; likewise, three
of the surrounding Chicago suburban counties (Lake, Kane, and Will) became
predominantly Hispanic by 2010. The
Illinois Hispanic community advanced from 636,000 in 1980, to 904,000 in 1990,
and then to 1,530,000 in 2000, and to 2,028,000 in 2010, of which the majority
are in metropolitan Chicago.
African Americans held steady at a little below 2,000,000 in the decade
after 2000 with the majority in Cook County.
Museum of African American History
40 East 56th Place
Chicago, IL 60437
Asian Americans increased from 166,000 in 1980 to 285,000 in 1990 to
423,000 in 2000, to 586,000 in 2010 of which the majority are in Cook County and another one-fifth in
neighboring DuPage County.
2010, the majority of the 43,000 Native Americans also live in the Chicago area with no state
* Mitchell Museum of American Indians
3001 Central Street
Evanston, IL 60201
* Ethnic Heritage Museum (Irish, Italian, African
American, Italian, Polish, Lithuanian, and Hispanic)
1129 South Main Street
Rockfort, IL 61101
mid-American Hoosier State is where a number of ethnic
patterns converge. Indiana's northern portion is the
extension of the vast Germanic belt that goes from Pennsylvania to the Rockies. The Great Lakes industrial zone contains a
strong contingent of Slavs (Poles, Czechs, Yugoslavs, Ukrainians) and other
Eastern Europeans. French, Dutch, and
Belgians also reside in the Lake Michigan vicinity as do colonies of Amish people. Indiana's southern portion is an
extension of the Appalachian-Ozark Americana through migration with
Irish/Scotch-Irish and English settlers.
Germanic immigrants from the Rhineland region settled in the Ohio Valley making this the ethnic Rhineland State. Indiana features the Swiss American
heritage, though other states such as Wisconsin (Green County) could have been
chosen. Switzerland keeps in touch with its
expatriates and permits them to retain citizenship.
* Swiss Heritage Village & Museum
1200 Swissway Road
Berne, IN 46711
(also Ogle Haus Inn, Vevay, IN 47043)
* Indiana German Heritage Society
401 E. Indiana Street
Indianapolis, IN 46203
state capital, Indianapolis, is the "Crossroads of
America." This major city has a large African-American population
along with others groups. About 40% of
the almost 600,000 (up from 510,000 in 2000) live in Marion County are the predominant group in
the county. African Americans are also
the leading group in northwestern Lake County and are concentrated in Indiana cities.
Native Americans alone or with others have grown from 39,000 in 2000 to
50,000 in 2010. There are no existing
reservations in this state with such high early American Indian influence.
Asian Americans expanded rapidly from 59,000 in 2000 to 102,000 in
2010; they live in five urban and counties (Marion, Monroe, Hamilton, Tippecanoe, and Allen).
Hispanic, located principally in the northwestern and Indianapolis urban areas went from 87,000
in 1980 to 100,000 in 1990, 215,000 in 2000, and almost doubled to 390,000 in
-- General Culture –
* Mathers Museum of World Culture
416 North Indiana Avenue
Bloomington, IN 47408
Hawkeye State's symmetrically checkered counties may seem monotonous,
but on closer examination, they display rich ethnic diversity. While mainly Germanic, Iowa offers surprises:
Luxembourgers, Amish, Czechs, Danes, Dutch, Irish, and Norwegians among
others. Polk County's 431,000 (2010) residents
are an ethnically diverse population, with sizeable numbers of Germans,
Italians, Dutch, Scandinavians, Slavs, English, and Scotch. Following the First World War Czechs and
Slovaks were united as one nation. America rural Czech settlements
differ from urban Slovak ones. A museum
of both groups in heavily Czech Cedar Rapids, Iowa celebrates the former
togetherness of two peoples.
* National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library (see FL, PA)
1400 Inspiration Place,
Cedar Rapids, IA 52404
Dutch Americans comprise about 6% of the total state population (a
percentage equal to Michigan's); and thus Iowa is a "Dutch State." Central Jasper, Marion and Mahaska Counties are heavily Dutch as are
northwestern Sioux and Lyon Counties.
Luxembourg is a small nation, but its
people have an ethnic pride found in picturesque settlements in Iowa and Wisconsin.
* Luxembourg American Cultural Society
Remsen, IA 51050
* Danish Immigrant Museum
7212 Washington Street
Horn, IA 51531
* Ackley Heritage Center (German)
120 State Street
Ackley, IA 50601
over 90% of the state is listed as white, other races are represented and
increasing. In 2010, almost 2% (53,000)
are Asian American up from 37,000 the previous decade of which a quarter
are in the Des Moines area; sizeable
concentrations are located in Story and Johnson Counties.
3% (89,000 in 2010) of the population is African American with over half
concentrated in the Des Moines area (Polk County) along with Black Hawk and Scott Counties.
11,000 (2010) Native Americans live in Iowa, some at or near Sac and Fox
Indian settlement in southwestern Tama County (1,300 American Indians).
Hispanics now number 152,000, having dramatically increased from
25,500 in 1980 to 32,600 in 1990, and to 82,000 in 2000. They are found throughout the state with the
largest concentrations in Polk (Des Moines) and Woodbury (Sioux City) Counties.
Sunflower State seems monotonously Germanic at first glance, but that is
deceptive. Two large sections of the
middle portion of the state were settled by immigrants from Russia making this the Germans
from Russia State, though it shares that designation with ten others states
on the Great
and into the Western portion of the nation.
Rural Kansas was a center of that
concentration in the 19th and 20th century.
These were a very cohesive group of Lutherans, Catholics and Mennonites
who sent scouts ahead from Russia to discover good
agricultural land and decide on areas in which to settle as a body. With time these settlements amalgamated
within the neighboring Germanic communities and so their actual designations
are omitted in the 2010 maps.
* Mennonite Settlement Museum
501 South Ash Street
Hillsboro, KS 67063
Clusters of other ethnic groups as well
settled in Kansas in the 19th and 20th
centuries: French, Czechs, Swedes, Danes, English, Polish, Scotch-Irish, and
Luxembourgers. The Kansas City and Wichita metropolitan areas include
Italians, Greeks, and Middle Easterners.
Italians and Yugoslavs are also found in the southeastern mining
areas. Likewise, a number of Amish
settlements thrive in the state. Kansas and neighboring Oklahoma, in contrast with other
western states, have "Americans" as one of two predominant
African Americans are highly concentrated and numbered 154,000 in 2000
and 167,000 in 2010. They account for
one quarter of Wyandotte County (Kansas City) population and 22% of Geary County's total and form a plurality
two-thirds of the 68,000 (2010) Asian Americans are located in Johnson
(near Kansas City) and Sedgwick (Wichita) Counties.
Native Americans (59,000 in 2010 alone or in combination) are found in
urban areas and also in four reservations in northeastern Kansas and include the Sac and Fox,
Iowa, Kickapoo, and Potawatomi nations.
Hispanics, mainly in the
southwestern portion of the state, increased from 63,000 in 1980 to 94,000 in
1990 and doubled to an amazing 188,000 in 2000 and then to 300,000 in 2010
(over 10% of the total Kansas population).
Two southwestern Kansas counties (Ford and Seward)
are unique in the Midwest in being over 50% Hispanic and seven others
counties have or share a plurality with Germans.
Bluegrass State has a mixed flavor of
Central Appalachian, Southern Dixie, and Midwestern ethnic
characteristics. The ethnic composition is
somewhat homogenous: some 21% declare themselves ethnically
"American," along with English, Irish, Scotch-Irish, with German
predominating in several counties within the Ohio Valley in Northern Kentucky and Jefferson County (Louisville). Kentucky could be called the Ethnic
Border State. Sizeable Irish and Alsatian groups have settled in the Ohio Valley as well. Over time the mid-south composition of urban Louisville and Lexington with their educational and
health centers, have become more cosmopolitan and include a variety of
immigrants from other lands from Asians to Bosnians. While ethnic colonies have
never been as noticeable as in neighboring states, still Laurel and Lincoln Counties have Swiss colonies. Glascow hosts annual Scottish Highland
40% of the 120 counties in Kentucky are officially classified as
"Appalachian," but the ethnic composition does not differ noticeably
from that of contiguous counties, though the Bluegrass and Mountain cultures differ
considerably. This Appalachian culture
is shared with those of the North (see West Virginia) with its strong German,
Italian and Slavic flavor as well as that of the South (see Tennessee).
Fork Institute & Berea College Appalachian Museum
Berea, KY 40404
Anglo/English groups of early America have lost much of their
ethnic identity and so increasing numbers in Kentucky, Tennessee and other states further
south and west identify themselves as "American." These Anglo groups formed part of the
religious landscape and included a Shaker religious settlement of the 19th
century with its very inventive and resourceful people.
* Shaker Village of Pleasant Hill
3501 Lexington Road
Harrodsburg, KY 30330
African Americans (337,500 or 7.8% of the total state population in 2010)
were more highly represented in central and western sections of the state in
the 19th century, but out-migration reduced those percentages. While the white race predominates in most
rural counties, still a dozen central and western counties contain numbers of
African Americans, and three of differing rural and urban status (Christian, Fulton, and Jefferson Counties) have them as the leading
Asian Americans went from 30,000 in 2000 to 49,000 in 2010 and Kentucky shares the national growth
pattern of this group.
Native Americans rarely inhabited this "hunting commons"
before Europeans arrived; their numbers in 2010 are 31,000.
Hispanic in-migration is dramatically increasing after the turn
of the century over doubling from 60,000 in 2000 (1.5%) to a 2010 number of
132,000 (3.1% of total state population).
Pelican State may be ethnically designated
the Acadian or the Cajun State. While Blacks account for one-third of Louisiana's population, one-million
residents regard themselves as "Cajuns," or with French,
French-Canadian, or Acadian ancestry.
These Acadian descendants, whose ancestors were forced to leave the
Maritime Provinces of Canada in the 17th century, inhabit the southern portion
of the state, which includes the Gulf Coast, the lower Mississippi
Delta, and the Bayou country. The Louisiana maps show a higher number of
Louisiana parishes as "French" because we group
"French," "French-Canadian," and "Cajuns" into a
single category; the majority of these people do not make clear distinctions
unless ancestors came after the expulsion.
* Cajun Music Hall of Fame & Museum
S. C.C. Duson
Eunice, LA 70535
one and a half-million Louisiana African Americans form a 50% or above
majority in East Carroll, Madison, Tensas, St. Helena, Orleans, and St. John
the Baptist Parishes (counties). New Orleans is almost two-thirds African
American; this group maintains a plurality in northern parishes due to lack of
large concentrated numbers of Irish, English, Americans, Scottish or
Scotch-Irish. A number of other ethnic
groups are present in Louisiana, mainly in the New Orleans metropolitan area: Scottish,
Italian, Polish, Greek, Scandinavian, Alsatian, Hungarian, and Middle
Easterners. A Slavonic-Dalmatian colony
exists near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Germans settled in the
lower river parishes and the lower part of the state includes Italians.
* American Italian Renaissance Foundation Research Museum
537 South Peters Street
New Orleans, LA 70130
Some 70,000 (2010) Asian Americans
are in Louisiana with half being in the New Orleans vicinity. The strongest sub-group are the Vietnamese
(about 40%) found in the southern part of the state and are known for their
work in the fishing and small business areas.
In the first decade of this century the Hispanic
community increased dramatically from 108,000 to 193,000 and is found clustered
in the New Orleans metropolitan area and in southern Louisiana. Many of these sought employment in the wake
of the Katrina hurricane disaster.
Native Americans number about 30,000 and are scattered throughout the
state. The Chitimacha tribe has a small
400 person reservation in St. Mary Parish.
The Houma claim 17,000 tribal members
with state, but no federal, recognition.
They are scattered over a six-parish southeastern Louisiana area mainly in quite rural
settings. The small Coushatta Tribe has a reservation located in Allen
Parish. The Choctaw are also scattered
but are federally recognized as a tribe with headquarters at Jena in LaSalle Parish.
New England's largest state in land mass
and the one with the longest coastline in the lower 48 states became the
residence of a combination of Anglo-Yankees and people from French Canada. This was followed by a generous dose of Irish
in the 1800s and then by a variety of European migrants in the southern
counties in the 20th century. All in
all, Maine could be called the Canadian American State.
Pine Tree State contains a heavy French and
French Canadian presence with the highest concentrations found in the northern Aroostook and the southern Lewis Counties, and this ethnic group
prevails throughout other portions of the state. Irish are found throughout Maine, while there are fewer
Germans than in most states further south and west. English is fading as the predominant group
though not as noticeably in northern New England as elsewhere. Southernmost Maine has diversity in ethnic
groups similar to the neighboring New Hampshire coast (Greeks, Swedes,
Finns, Scots, Poles, Italians as well as Irish and French Canadians). Some Middle East inhabitants live in southern
towns. In addition, there are clusters
of Swedish and Scottish people found in northeastern Aroostook County.
Maine resembles neighboring New Hampshire in ethnic composition, with
over 95% of its population being white.
17.000 Hispanics (2010) comprise 1.3% of the people and are located
mainly in the Portland area.
African Americans have increased from 7,000 in 2000 to 16,000 in 2010 or
1.2% of the population.
the first decade of this century, Asian Americans went from 9,000 to
14,000 and reside mainly around Portland.
Native Americans number about 8.500 and are found mainly in the east and
in larger towns. Passamaquoddy (2 reservations) and Penobscot Indians (1
reservation) along with the Aroostook band of Micmac and Houston band of the Maliseet
Indians. These groups are generally
located in areas bordering neighboring New Brunswick.
* Penobscot Nation Museum
12 Down Street
Indian Island, ME 04468
Maine's French, English and Native
Americans often connected with people in neighboring Canada, perhaps more so than any
other state. The border is distinct but
porous, with a high level of cultural and commercial intercourse. While folklore is truly Maine because of the uniqueness of
the state, still it is highly influenced by its good neighbor to the North.
* Maine Folklore Center
S. Stevens Hall
Orono, ME 04469-5773
Old Line or Free State is a sliver of Americana and embraces several ethnic
regions. Ethnically, Maryland is represented by every
group and, being near the national capital, can be called the National
Ethnic State. It has elements of the
South in its own southern peninsula (Americans, English, heavy concentrations
of African Americans and Native Americans); its far western Garrett and
Allegheny Counties are Appalachian with their Scotch-Irish and German elements;
its northern counties (Hartford, Carroll, Frederick, and Washington) are the
lower fringes of the nationwide Germanic Belt.
Baltimore City and County with their
African-American pluralities still have numerous urban ethnic groups (Slavic,
Scandinavian, Hungarian, Dutch, Greek, and Italian) and reflect the
cosmopolitan eastern seaboard stretching from Boston to Washington, DC; and Washington suburbs experience a rapid
growth of Hispanic, Asian American and Middle Easterners.
African Americans are a sizeable number in Maryland with almost 1,800,000 and
alone-or-in-combination constitute 30.9% of the population in 2010. Baltimore City and Prince George's County are both about 65%
African American. These African American
concentrations, plus the already mentioned southern Maryland concentrations, make it
fourth highest in state percentage ranking excluding the District of Columbia. No state was more entangled in the early
slavery controversies and commerce that brought African slaves to America. Maryland and the District of Columbia were in the middle of
liberation and furnished leaders for that cause.
* African Art Museum of Maryland
5430 Vantage Point Road
Columbia, MD 21044
* Banneker-Douglass Museum
84 Franklin Street
Annapolis, MD 21401
region where English Catholic and Protestants predominated from Colonial times,
Piscataway Native Americans are found together with "Wesort" (Indians
of mixed racial blood) who welcomed the early arrivals with genuine
hospitality. Native Americans alone or
in combinations increased from 39,000 in 2000 to 58,000 in 2010.
Indian Cultural Center
16816 Country Lane
Waldorf, MD 20601
Asian Americans increased from 65,000 in 1980 to 139,000 in 1990 and to
211,000 in 2000, with 47% of that total in Montgomery County; by 2010 they totaled
319,000 or 5.5% of the population.
Hispanics followed a similar growth pattern going also from
65,000 in 1980 to 125,000 in 1990, to 228,000 in 2000, and to 471,000 in 2010
(8.2%); one-third of these live in Montgomery County where Hispanics tie with
African Americans for predominance. Many
Hispanics have roots in Central and South America.
Bay State's six million inhabitants
comprise a rich diversity of cultures, races and ancestry. The state shares the wealth of groups found
throughout southern New England and continuing along the Atlantic coast to Baltimore. The older Yankee component is more
concentrated on the offshore island, Cape Cod, and in western Massachusetts. The accessible Boston port made Massachusetts a destination of diverse
immigrant groups during the 19th and 20th centuries, thus being called the Irish State. However, others joined this group: Italians,
Portuguese (predominantly represented in Bristol County), French and French-Canadians,
Polish, Russians, Ukrainians and other Slavic groups, Swedes and Finns,
Baltics, and Greeks, Armenians and Lebanese.
Irish Cultural Center of New England
New Boston Drive
Canton, MA 02021
* Armenian Library Museum of America
65 Main Street
Watertown, MA 02172
* Museum of Madeiran Heritage
27 Hope Street
New Bedford, MA 02745
This is one place where early English ancestry is celebrated.
* Plimoth Plantation
137 Warren Avenue
Plymouth, MA 02360
the white race comprises over four-fifths of the total population, other races
include about 6.6% of citizens (434,000) who are African American and
include people from the Azores and Cape Verde. Norfolk County (Boston) is predominantly Black.
slightly smaller number (5.5%) are Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese,
Koreans, Asian Indians and others), who tend to cluster near the numerous
academic and research centers in the state.
Asian American numbers increased from 238,000 at the turn of the century
to 350,000 in 2010.
to recent immigration, many other Latinos and Hispanics, including
Puerto Ricans and Cubans, help account for a jump from a total state population
429,000 in 2000 to 628,000 in 2010.
Hispanics are now the leading ethnic group in western Hampden County (Springfield), and they tie with Irish as
the predominant group in northeastern Essex County.
Native Americans number about 19,000 and are scattered.
Three small reservations exist (two of Nipmuck
in Worcester County and one of Wampanoag on Cape Cod).
Wolverine State's ethnic composition is one
of the most diverse in America, if one counts various
Slavic, Middle Eastern and Asian American groups. Numerous groups vie for predominance in one
or more counties: Germans (in 31 counties), Finns, Native Americans, French and
French Canadian, Belgians, Swedes, and Italians in the Upper Peninsula, African Americans (43% of
total population in Wayne County), Polish, and Dutch (in 4
west central counties). Ethnically, Michigan is several states: the
southeast Detroit Metropolitan area (Wayne, Oakland and Macomb) with immense ethnic
diversity such as Slavic and Arabic people as the buckle on the Great Lake industrial belt and the Upper Peninsula. With such diversity, Michigan could be called the Finnish,
Assyrian, or Arabic State.
in number, Polish and Irish are strong.
Since the Second World War Appalachians have been numerous in Detroit metropolitan area. Furthermore, Michigan is within the Germanic belt
with one-and-a-half million citizens declaring German as first ancestry. When ranking groups African Americans are
second and Poles and Italians follow in that order.
Arabic is often heard in the Detroit metropolitan area. A large and growing group of migrants from
Arab lands has settled in and around Detroit. Arabs and Gulf State immigrants total one-half
million and this comprises the largest such concentration in our country.
Outer Drive Road
Dearborn, MI 48124
Chaldeans are an ancient Middle East people who inhabit Iraq and nearby lands. In America, they number about 50,000
mainly concentrated in the Detroit area (Oakland Co. 15,300 and
Macomb Co, 11,800). They are classified
in the U.S. Census as Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac and are Christians mainly of the
Catholic Chaldean Rite and the Church of the East.
5600 Walnut Lake Road
West Bloomfield, MI 48323
Finns are northern Europeans (not Scandinavians) and should
not be grouped with them. Often,
however, Finns reside in areas where Norwegians and Swedes are prevalent. However, in contrast to the Swedes who are
predominant in no county, the Finns have four or more Upper Peninsula counties in which they are
number one or share with others in plurality.
35200 West Eight Mile Road
Farmington Hills, MI 48335
-- Others –
* Bosnian Cultural Center in Grand Rapids (see Illinois)
Eastern Avenue S.E.
Grand Rapids, MI 49508
Dutch are quite prominent in western Michigan and some regard this as
little Holland with a city by that name.
* Holland Museum
31 West Tenth Street
Holland, MI 49423
Dutch American Council in Grand Rapids)
Bavarian Inn Lodge & Restaurant
1 Covered Bridge Lane
Frankenmuth, MI 48734
American Cultural Center
43843 Romeo Plank Road
Clinton Township, MI 48038-1297
Polish Cultural Center
2975 East Maple Road
Troy, MI 48083
African Americans have remained static in numbers at about 1,400,000 or
about one-seventh of the state population.
Most are located in the Detroit metropolitan area but there
are sizeable clusters in southwestern Michigan as well.
Asian Americans from several nationalities numbered 61,000 in 1980,
105,000 in 1990, 176,500 in 2000, and 238,000 in 2010; most of these live in
urban areas. Asian Indians
(Indo-Americans) are a recognized new addition to the Asian American ancestry
mosaic. Many of these professionals
arrive and cluster near academic and research facilities, but others are found
in a variety of occupations including many businesses and motels.
Cultural Center & Temple
2002 Ramona Avenue
the past few decades Hispanics increased from 162,000 in 1980, to
201,500 in 1990, to 324,000 in 2000, and to 436,000 (4.4%) in 2010. Note that this increase has occurred during a
period when the overall Michigan population was static or
slightly declining in this century.
Hispanics are scattered, though 95,000 reside in Wayne County, 58,000 in Kent County (Grand Rapids), and 42,000 in Oakland in the Detroit metropolitan area.
62,000 Native Americans are predominantly Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi found mainly
in or near a dozen reservations in northern or central Michigan along with 6,000 in Wayne County.
Gopher State is strongly German and Scandinavian,
but other groups are present as important minorities: urban Irish, Austrians,
and Hungarians, rural areas of Czechs and Dutch in the south, French in Red Lake County, and Poles in Marshall County. The presence of Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes
along with Finns give this state a pronounced Northern European flavor, for Minnesota is the heart of American
Scandinavia. Ethnic state maps for the
four decades show far broader coverage from this ethnic group; this is because
the number of counties with mixed Scandinavian ancestry exceeds the number with
Norwegian first ancestry plurality.
* Heritage Hjemkomst Center (Norwegian)
202 1st Avenue North
Morehead, MN 56560
2600 Park Avenue
Minneapolis, MN 55407
groups celebrate their unique ethnic roles as well:
* Gammelgarden Museum
Olinda Trail North
Scandia, MN 55073
and Slovak Cultural Center of Minnesota
Sohol Hall, 383 Michigan Street
St. Paul, MN 55102
Native Americans (Chippewa) have eight reservations in the sparsely
settled but highly picturesque northern part of the state; however, they are
also found in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties where one-quarter of the
61,000 (2010) Indians reside.
2010, African Americans number over a quarter of a million and comprise
5.2% of the population; they are concentrated in urban areas with about
four-fifths of the this group found in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties
214,000 Asian Americans (4% of state population) is concentrated in this
area including a large contingent of the total 260,000 Hmong Americans (second
to California in numbers).
995 University Ave, N#214
St. Paul, MN 55104
Hispanic migration as witnessed in lower Midwestern states is coming to Minnesota as well. The state had 32,000 Hispanics in 1980,
54,000 in 1990, 143,000 in 2000 and 250,000 in 2010 (4.7% of population). About half are in the Minneapolis/St. Paul
metropolitan area, and the rest are found in a number of smaller southern Minnesota towns and rural counties.
Magnolia State resembles its neighbors
within the African American belt stretching from the Carolinas to Texas. Two dozen counties have an absolute majority
of African Americans, most of these within the length of the Mississippi River and Delta. African Americans represent about 37.6% of
the total state population of about 3 million (2010), the highest percentage of
any state, and thus the ethnic designation the African American State; the capital city of Jackson in Hinds County has a very high
concentration. Only the two extreme
northeastern or Appalachian counties are less than 10% African American.
African-American Cultural Center
Yazoo City, MS 39194
generally follow the Southeast's ethnic composition pattern, with the
designated "American" (14%) highest and Irish and Scotch-Irish,
English and German ranking in that order.
The Acadian French are strongly represented in southern Hancock County bordering Louisiana. The Gulf coast has a number of Italians and
other ethnic groups as well. The Jackson urban area also has more
ethnic diversity than the rest of the inland portions of the state.
Asian Americans comprise a little more than one percent of the
population increasing from 23,000 in 2000 to 32,500 in 2010; they are
concentrated in urban and academic centers as well as along the Gulf coast.
Native Americans increased from 19,500 in 2000 to almost 26,000 in 2010;
about 5.000 of them are found in Neshoba County, the home of the Choctaw
Indian Reservation; however, their county total is exceeded by African
Hispanic census figures followed those neighboring state
patterns with a decline from 1980 (25,000) to 1990 (13,000) and then a
three-fold increase to 40,000 in 2000; this doubled to 81,000 by 2010. These Hispanics are found in urban areas in
the Gulf counties of Harrison (9,000) and Jackson (over 6,000), as well as Desoto County near Memphis (over 8,000) though they
have not achieved predominance in any county.
Show Me State contains a wide diversity of ethnic groups, because
it is a border state with Southern, Midwestern, Ozark, and national
cosmopolitan influences. In the south, Missouri resembles neighboring Arkansas with Ozark residents calling
themselves American, English, Irish, and Scotch-Irish and very few African
Americans, except in Pemiscot County at the head of the
Mississippi Delta. Mid-Missouri is part
of the heavy Germanic-belt with some Irish and English and scattered groups of
Czechs. In the Germanic and
"American" north there is an undercurrent of Scandinavians,
especially the Norwegians along with Amish colonies. Missouri urban areas include
Italians, various Slavic groups, Scandinavians, Greeks, Dutch, Austrians,
Hungarians, Scots, and French. In Washington and surrounding counties
south of St. Louis are French descendants of
the early settlement by France. Missouri could be called the Austrian State.
Missouri is clearly within the heavily Germanic Midwest belt, it stands out in
celebrating its Germanic culture in a special way. Germans in America differ considerably in their
religious and political stances. In the St. Louis area under heavy influence
of the Missouri Synod Lutherans there is a strong conservative flavor to
Germans in contrast to those of Wisconsin and other parts of the Midwest.
German American Cultural Center
8001 Natural Bridge Road
St. Louis, MO 63121
second largest ethnic group with about 700,000 in 2010 is African American
with both the two largest sites (St. Louis City and County and Kansas City) moving over the four decades
from Germanic predominance to that of African American plurality. Several southeastern counties along the Mississippi River are also predominantly
Hispanics expanded from 52,000 in 1980 to 62,000 in 1990 and then
almost doubled to 119,000 in 2000, and almost doubled again to over 212,000
(going from 2.1 to 3.5% of the population).
They are located in various parts of the state with north central Sullivan County being the predominant ethnic
group. Also over 10% of McDonald County is Hispanic.
Asian Americans have increased from 24,000 in 1980 to 41,000 in 1990,
to 62,000 in 2000, and then to 98,000 in 2010, with half located in the St. Louis vicinity and one-eighth in
Kansas City/Jackson County.
25,000 Native Americans reporting in 2000 advanced by natural increase
to 27,000 in 2010; these lack reservations and are scattered throughout the
state especially in urban areas, though a concentration exists in southwestern
counties near Oklahoma.
Treasure State, while fourth largest in territory, has one million
people scattered over a vast region.
However, population sparsity does not deter diversity. Montana shares in the rich Great Plains and Rocky Mountain ethnic mosaic with a heavy
Germanic background and a mixture of other groups, especially because of 19th
and early 20th century agricultural and mining settlements. Plains Indians are found on the eastern
portion. The mining areas of the west
contain clusters of Italians, Czechs, Poles and Yugoslavs. Scandinavians, especially Norwegians (the
third largest ethnic group), are found throughout the state but especially in
the northeastern counties where they are predominant.
the western mining areas of Deer Lodge and Silver Bow Counties, are many Irish making Montana the Western Irish State? Featuring Irish in a special way is difficult
in much of the United States outside of Northeast due to
the high level of mobility and the tendency of Irish to mingle towns and
cities. However, Montana is unique in the Northwest
in having Irish concentrated in a few southwestern counties with a higher
concentration (as percentage of population) of Irish than anywhere else west of
Studies - University of Montana-Missoula
Montana is over 90% white, but a sizeable number of Native
Americans (62,500) comprise over 6% of the total state population. They include Blackfeet, Crow, Sioux, Assiniboine, and Cheyenne and are found in seven
reservations in different parts of the state.
Native Americans comprise a majority in three counties (Glacier, Big
Horn, and Roosevelt Counties) and a plurality in three
others (Blaine, Rosebud, and Lake Counties).
Asian Americans are few in number (6,000), and so it is logical to
highlight them in more populous California, Washington, and Virginia. Perhaps it is a surprise to feature one major
grouping in the Rocky Mountains. However, the
Chinese Americans helped in many ways in the settling of the West and richly
deserve this further mention in the mountain states.
* Mai Wah Museum
17 West Mercury Street
Butte, MT 59701
numbers of Hispanics are coming to Montana and comprise almost 3%
(28,500) of the 2010 population -- which is still quite small compared to other
Western states and lacking any county plurality.
very few in number, African Americans increased in the first decade of
this century from 2,700 to over 4,000 in 2010.
Cornhusker State fits snugly as the buckle of
the German ethnic belt that runs from Pennsylvania to the West Coast. Virtually all of the counties have Germans
ethnically in first place much like neighboring Kansas. English and people classified as Americans
are more numerous in the southeastern portion of the state. The Omaha metropolitan area (Douglas and Sarpy Counties) is ethnically diverse:
Germans, Irish, Danes and other Scandinavians, Czechs, Poles and other Slavs,
English, Italians (a Little Italy in Omaha), Scots, French, Greeks,
Jews, and Swiss. Five counties have
traditionally been Czech or Bohemian (Colifax, Butler, Saunders, Valley and
Saline) so as to call Nebraska the Czech State.
South Omaha (Czech)
Omaha, NE 68107
counties have been Polish (Nance and Sherman), and one (Phelps) has been
Swedish as noted in the earlier ethnic maps.
The rural eastern portion of Nebraska still has a proud Slavic
flavor. In all of these areas, the
predominant ancestry group today is German and so this smothers out the strong
influence of these two early Slavic groups in rural Nebraska, which still has secondary
numbers of Slavic peoples. Note that the
Germans from Russia are no longer prominent
enough to outline designated areas.
* Polish Heritage Center (Sherman County)
P.O. Box 3
226 Carlton Avenue
Ashton, NE 68817
Hispanics have been increasing rapidly in recent years. Currently 6% of the total population is Hispanic,
having increased from 28,000 in 1980 to 37,000 in 1990 and to a surprising
94,000 in 2000 and 167,000 in 2010.
Three counties in different parts of the state are predominantly
Hispanic (Colfax, Dakota, and Dawson) with a strong contingent in Scotts Bluff County in the west. Over one-third of Nebraska's Hispanics reside in Douglas County (Omaha).
2010, about two-thirds the state's 83,000 African Americans reside in
the Omaha metropolitan area.
These increased from 68,500 in 2000.
2010, the 32,000 Asian Americans are not as concentrated, yet still half
reside in and around Omaha. This group has increased from 22,000 at the
turn of the century.
Thurston County has a majority of Native
Americans on or near its reservation (Omaha, Ponca, and Winnebago) in
the northeast. Two other counties have
Indian reservations: Knox County (Santee Sioux) in the north
and Richardson County (Sac & Fox and Iowa) in the southeast extending
into Kansas. In 2010 the
total Native Americans are 18,000 alone and 30,000 in combination with others.
Sagebrush State name is being threatened by
urbanization and wild fires. However, in
recent years limited water supplies and the Great Recession have curtailed
growth in this still sparsely populated state.
Over two-thirds of Nevada's population is concentrated
in the Clark County (Las Vegas) area. This Las Vegas metropolitan area has large
numbers of Germans, English, and Irish, along with sizeable groups of Italians,
French, Polish, Swedish, Scottish, Dutch, Norwegians, and people coming from
various parts of the Middle East.
Basque Americans are not numerous but are quite ethnically
conscious. Basque shepherds came to Nevada and then others followed
from the Basque region of northern Spain and neighboring France. This ethnic group is only a few thousand in
number (Washoe County is highest with 1,491);
however, one can call Nevada the Basque State, which it can share to some
degree with Idaho with its own Basque
for Basque Studies
University of Nevada Reno
Reno, NV 89557-2322
Hispanics have shown dramatic increases and plurality in various
counties including over a half million in Clark county alone. Hispanics increased from about 400,000 in
2000 or almost 20% of the state population to 717.000 in 2010 (26.5%). By 2010 some eight counties are predominantly
Hispanic and another shares this distinction with Germans. The "Hispanization" of this state
in this century is most pronounced and will most likely continue.
African Americans increased from 135,000 to 219,000 in the first decade
of this century, and comprise 8% of Nevada's population; a major
portion of them resides in Clark County.
Asian-American proportional increases were even more dramatic than
Hispanics, increasing from 90,000 in 2000 to 196,000 in 2010. This 114% rise in one decade is the fastest
of a state in the nation. The vast
majority are concentrated in the Las Vegas area, with most of the rest
residing in Washoe County around Reno.
Native Americans, while only 32,000 strong in 2010, have 23 reservations
in the state covering about one million acres.
On these reside Paiute, Shoshone, Washoe and other Indian tribes, while
almost a quarter of Nevada Native Americans live in Reno and Las Vegas.
Granite State has a similar ethnic
composition to its northern New England neighbors Vermont and Maine. The state population is over 90% white; a
majority of Asian American, African American, and other racial groups together
with Hispanics are concentrated in Hillsborough County in or near Manchester, the state's largest
city. The major state ethnic group is
French/French-Canadian (about a quarter of the total population) and
predominant in the majority of the counties with English and Irish following in
ranking. Persons with Scottish
backgrounds are quite numerous (34,000) and one may consider that it vies with North Carolina in being called the Scottish
southern former mill towns are closely related to the ethnic composition of
southern New England neighbors. These
urban areas have strong Polish, Slovak, other Eastern European, Greek,
Portuguese, Swedish, Finnish, and Italian numbers. In recent years, New Hampshire has become an
"exurbia" of Boston and is experiencing changes
of ethnic composition reflecting the movement of Massachusetts people north. One can expect larger numbers of Irish,
Italians, Portuguese, Greek, and Middle Eastern people within the gradually
increasing ethnic diversity, as more southern New Englanders discover the Granite State's benefits.
Franco-Americans are a combination of French and French Canadians even
though the smaller ethnic group "Canadians" may include some of
French descent as well. The strong
French flavor is shared by all the other New England states with Vermont, Maine, and Massachusetts having predominant counties;
Rhode Island and Connecticut also have sizeable numbers
who had originally come to the mills and factories in the 19th century
100 St. Anselm Drive
1798 Davison Hall
Manchester, NH 03102
2010, New Hampshire had 3,000 Native Americans (10.500 in
combination with others) and no reservations.
2010, some 15,000 African Americans comprised one percent of the state
the year 2000 in one decade there was a near doubling of Asian American
population from 16,000 to 28,000 people.
Hispanic population also had a dramatic increase from 20,500 to 37,000
in the first decade of this century; this amounts to 3% of the total state
Garden State bears a rich display of
multicolored ethnic symbols. Some 1.3
million Italians makes this only one of four states where this ethnic group
shows signs of predominance. Hispanics
have forged into the lead among ethnic groups in 2010 with almost 1.6 million
people and some racial overlap. Along
with Italians, African Americans are next in order with about 1.2
million people or one-seventh of the population each. Then come Irish, and Germans along with
sizeable numbers of Asian Americans, Poles, and English. New Jersey vies with Connecticut as the Italian State.
Center for Italian and Italian American Culture
411 Pompton Avenue, Suite 5
Cedar Grove, NJ 07009
In the 20th century, New Jersey Eastern
European variation (Poles, Hungarians, Russians, Ukrainians, Slovaks, etc.) was
* Hungarian Heritage Center
300 Somerset Street
New Brunswick, NJ 08903
and Hungarian Festival (June)
New Brunswick, NJ
American Cultural Center of New Jersey
60 North Jefferson Road
Whippany, NJ 07981
recent period Middle Eastern variety (Iranians, Armenians, Arabs, Lebanese,
Syrians, Greeks, Iraqis, Turks, etc.) make New Jersey compete with Michigan in being called the Middle East State. Scottish, French, Swedes, Austrians, Welsh,
Swiss, and Portuguese are here, as are several enclaves of Dutch persisting
from Colonial times.
Asian Americans increased from 156,000 in 1980, to 273,000 in 1990, and
to 480,000 in 2000 (with Middlesex a recent plurality), and Bergen Counties
having concentrations of Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, and Indo-Americans. The numbers are still growing with 726,000
Asian Americans in 2010.
American Religious & Cultural Center
Iselin, NJ 08830
Hispanics with mixed racial backgrounds have increased
dramatically, from 491,000 in 1980, to 740,000 in 1990, to 1,142,000 by 2000,
and to 1,555,000 in 2010. These
constitute 40% of Hudson County (Jersey City) and 37% of Passaic County (Paterson) and include many Puerto
Ricans, Dominicans, and other Latin Americans.
Hispanics have a plurality in Cumberland and Middlesex Counties and share in two (Bergen and Somerset) with Italians. Again, there is some possible overlap, as
some will identify themselves as both Hispanic and African American.
* New Jersey Hispanic Research & Information Center
Newark Public Library
5 Washington Street
Newark, NJ 07101
African Americans are not increasing as rapidly as Asians and Hispanics;
they increased from 1,142,000 to 1,204,000 in the first decade of this century;
they are concentrated in such urban centers as Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Camden and have been augmented by
others from Latin America and Africa.
Cultural Center of New Jersey
356 Bloomfield Avenue,
Montclair, NJ 07042
Native Americans numbered 29,000 in 2010 and have three Federal or state
recognized groupings: Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape, Powhatan Renape nation, and the
Ramapough Lunaape Nation.
* Woodruff Indian Museum
150 Commerce Street East
Bridgeton, NJ 08302
Mexico, the Enchanted State, is also truly the Hispanic State
with over 46% of its 2010 population being of Hispanic or Latino origin
(up from 30% in 1970, 37% in 1980, and 42% in 2000). While more populous states such as Texas and California have millions of Hispanics,
still the almost one million Hispanics in sparsely settled New Mexico are significant, and makes
this second to Hawaii in a national minority
becoming state majority. New Mexico stands as having mostly
indigenous Hispanics and the lowest level of foreign-born of major Hispanic
states (less than 10%). All New Mexican
counties except the three northwestern Native American ones and Catron (American)
have majority or are predominantly Hispanic.
Hispanic Cultural Center
1701 4th Street, SW
Albuquerque, NM 87102
New Mexico with 193,000 Native
Americans is the ancestral home to a number of Indian tribes and nations;
they reside both on 24 reservations covering three million acres and in urban
centers. Indians constitute almost
one-tenth of the state's population.
Navajo are generally in the northwestern "Four Corners" portions of the state
in San Juan and McKinley Counties. Ute and Apache peoples are immediately to the
east. The Pueblo-dwelling Zuni, Tanoan,
Keresan and other peoples are found in the west and south central portions of
the state, especially in the Rio Grande and tributary valleys, and
form a rich cultural tradition.
Pueblo Cultural Center
2401 12th Street, NW
Albuquerque, NM 87104
Albuquerque is a southwestern
metropolitan area and 0Bernalillo County contains about 30% of the
total state population. A large number
of ethnic groups, such as Germans, Irish, English, French, Italians,
Scandinavians, Slavic, Welsh, Greek, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, and Dutch are
2010, almost half of the state's small African American population of
42,500 is found in the Albuquerque urban area. This is an increase from a little more than
34,000 in 2000.
half of the 28,000 Asian Americans also reside in the Albuquerque area. Furthermore, small Los Alamos County with its national
laboratories, attracts a diverse population; this county had a former Germanic
predominance and a sizeable number of Asian Americans and yet the plurality is
held by Hispanics.
Empire State contains a large number of
ethnic groups especially clustered in the New York City metropolitan area. The state is ethnically the Puerto Rican,
Dominican, Albanian, Greek, Maltese, Turkish
and Jewish State. The Long Island boroughs have enclaves of Norwegians in one
place, Greeks in a second, and Hungarian Jews in another, with the Irish and
Italians being quite numerous throughout the island. The New York City portions have heavy Hispanic
and African American representations. Manhattan's Chinatown, Harlem, and its proximity to Ellis Island make this in some ways America's Ethnic Diversity
Capital. Upstate New York is heavily Germanic in the Lake Erie region and the Mohawk Valley, with French and many Polish
and other Slavic groups also present.
Swedes are found in the Lake Erie Counties and Danes and Amish in Yates County. Counties bordering Quebec are strongly French and
French Canadian. Italians and Irish as
well as descendants of early Dutch settlers live in the Hudson Valley. Academic centers in Tompkins and Broome Counties add to this ethnic
Americans are scattered across the United States but the major concentration
is on Long
Island. These people have been highly successful in a
variety of business and are strongly loyal to their cultural roots.
Astoria, NY 11102-3142
from the Island of Malta have come to the Northeast
and Midwest and congregated in areas
where other Mediterranean people
(Greeks, Italians, etc,) settled. New York City has the major concentration.
27-20 Hoyt Avenue South
Astoria, NY 11102-1942
of both Christian (Catholic and Orthodox) and Muslim
segment have migrated in relatively large number
to this metropolitan area.
Islamic Cultural Center
307 Victory Boulevard
Staten Island, NY 10301
large numbers of non-Turkish immigrants came from the Ottoman Empire in the 19th and early 20th
century, still Turkish people are generally of more recent arrival.
Brooklyn, NY 11223
of the 3.0 million African Americans (holding steady in population since
2000) reside in New York City with Kings County (Brooklyn) being predominantly African
American. This group lost its state
predominance in the 2000 to 2010 period to Hispanics who include people who are
of mixed race -- but this complicates the comparison.
2010, the 3.4 million Hispanics are highly concentrated in the New York City metropolitan area and are
predominant in Queens, Bronx, and Manhattan with the city being home to
80% of them. Hispanics have increased
from 2.2 million in 1980 to 2.9 million in 2000 to the present total.
Civic Cultural Center
619 West 145th Street
New York, NY 10031
Asian Americans have experienced dramatic increases from 323,000 in
1980 to one million at the turn of the century and then to 1.4 million in
2010. They are concentrated in New York City with over one-third in Queens alone.
half of 107,000 Native Americans (including the Iroquois Confederation
tribes) are in the City, with many others on the several state recognized
-- Other Interest Places and
* Ellis Island Immigration Museum
New York, NY 10004
Spring Street, 11th Floor
New York, NY 10017
(other locations at 5 E. Third St. and 38 Ludlow Ave.)
* Federation of German American Societies
Broadway # 5
New York, NY 10013-2562
J. Quill Irish Cultural & Sports Center
(Greene County, New York)
East Durham, NY
for Jewish History (See GA)
15 West 16th Street
New York, NY 10011
(also Yeshiva University Museum)
Like neighboring Virginia and Tennessee, the Tar Heel State
is divided into three basic regions. The
coastal area is a continuation of the African American/American and English
belt, which stretches from Virginia to Florida. Pre-Revolutionary War settlements of
Scottish, German, and Moravian people have influenced the ethnic mix of the
population in the central Piedmont portion of North Carolina for centuries. This area now includes major cities such as Raleigh and Fayetteville with somewhat diverse
populations including Asians, Italians, and Middle Easterners. Early Scottish settlers brought many cultural
traits to help weave the American ethnic fabric. While one could list dozens of Scottish
festivals, the region includes premier Scottish settlements (Moore County, etc.).
* Scottish Tartans Museum
86 East Main Street
Franklin, NC 28734
Early settlers were highly concentrated
in various parts of the state and this is still reflected in strong cultural
* Old Salem Museums and Gardens
600 South Main Street
Salem, NC 217101
western portion of North Carolina has Southern Appalachians who have roots in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland, along with a mixture of
Germans. Retirement communities attract
migrants from many places to the Asheville area.
North Carolina is home to a little more
than 2,000,000 African Americans or 22% of the population. Most Eastern counties have heavy
concentrations and five have majorities.
Civil Rights Center & Museum
134 South Elm Street
Greensboro, NC 27401; www.sitinmovement.org
Native Americans number 122,000 in the state. A sizeable federal Indian
reservation is located in Swain County. Robeson County also has a plurality of
Native Americans principally Lumbee.
Haliwa-Saponi and Waccamaw-Siouan Tribes are also represented.
of the Cherokee Indian
Tsali, Cherokee, NC 28719
North Carolina has a dramatic rise in Hispanic
numbers; these have more than doubled from 378,000 in 2000 to 800,000 in 2010
(8.4% of total population). In Chatham County, Hispanics tie with African
Americans for plurality with 112,000 in Mecklenburg County and large numbers in 50
Asian Americans move from 114,000 in 2000 to 209,000 in 2010 with
higher concentrations in urban and academic/research centers.
Sioux State is the only state with a
traditional nickname that has an ethnic origin.
On the other hand, we call South Dakota, the neighbor to the south,
the Lakota State. Actually, from an ethnic perspective, North Dakota can hold the rank of the Norwegian State with about one-third of the
people claiming that as primary or secondary ancestry, second in number after
ethnic maps show a patchquilt of ethnic groups in the rural North Dakota
countryside besides the ones just mentioned: Swedes, Danes, Finns, Icelanders,
French Canadians, Ontarians, Luxembourgers, Irish, English, Belgians, Poles,
Czechs, and Ukrainians (Billings County is the only county in the United States
where that group at one time ranked in plurality). The rural
ethnic patterns have changed with much out-migration in recent decades,
though oil and gas expansion and other employment prospects in recent years is
repopulating parts of the state.
decades of intermarriage a blending of ethnicity has occurred among people of
the northern Midwest into a grouping that is identified as
"Scandinavian" but includes those of Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and
Icelander origin -- and to a lesser degree other Northern Europeans such as the
* Scandinavian Heritage Park
p.o. Box 862
Minot, ND 58702
(701) 852-9161; www.scandinavianheritage.org
Native Americans (about 36,500 or 5.4% of the total population) are
found especially in counties where the five American Indian reservations are
located; an increasing number are scattered in different parts of the
state. Native American groups are
comprised mainly of Lakota, Chippewa, Mandan, Arikata, and Hidatsa (last
three are federated).
Federated Tribe Museum
404 Frontage Road
New Town, ND 58763
Asian Americans doubled from a low number of 3,600 in 2000 to almost
7,000 in 2010.
African Americans doubled from the turn of the century number of 4,000 to
8,000 (1.2% of total population) in the recent Census.
Hispanics, while a little over one percent or almost 8,000 in
2000 increased to 13,500 in 2010, a pattern of growth found throughout the Great Plains.
Buckeye State is predominantly of German
origin with 2.1 million people designating this as their primary ancestry. The state is divided into the
German/Slavic/Italian north and the German/ American/Irish/
English/Scotch/Scotch-Irish south. Rural
Ohio includes colonies of Amish (generally of German or
Swiss background) as well as concentrations of Welsh, French, Swiss and
Austrians in different parts of the state.
Columbus is in the middle of Ohio with its ethnic diversity
resembling that of Cincinnati in the south and Cleveland, Youngstown, and Toledo in the north.
7370 Columbia Road
Cleveland, OH 44326-1502
* German Culture Museum (Amish)
4877 Olde Pump Street
P.O. Box 51
Walnut Creek, OH 44687
St. Mary's Church (German)
123 East 13th Street
Cincinnati, OH 45202
the more densely populated industrial northeast one finds a host of Eastern
groups including Lithuanians, Rumanians, Ukrainians, Poles, Slovaks, Czechs,
Russians and other groups making this the Croatian, Slovenian,
and Hungarian State.
Hungarian Cultural Center of Northeastern Ohio
12027 Abbott Road
Hiram, OH 44234
* Slovak Institute
10510 Buckeye Road
Cleveland, OH 44104
* Slovenian Museum & Archives
6407 St. Clair Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44103-1633
like neighboring Michigan, Ohio is home for many Arab
Americans, especially throughout the northern areas.
* Maronite Center (Christians)
1555 South Meridian Road
Youngstown, OH 44511
Center of Greater Toledo
25877 Scheider Road
Perrysburg, OH 43551
Cleveland, as part of the Western Reserve, attracted numerous people
from the British Isles in its early settlement (English, Scottish, etc.). It was also attractive to the largest number
of Manx (people from the Isle of Man) with a strong migration in
the early 19th century.
* The Cleveland Manx Society
African American are becoming the ethnic group of predominance in the
urban counties Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland, as
well as tying with Germans in Montgomery County (Dayton) and with Italians in the Youngstown area. Hamilton County is 26%, Franklin 21%, and
Cuyahoga 30% African American.
Asian Americans have increased from 51,000 in 1980, to 91,000 in 1990,
to 133,000 in 2000, and to 192,000 in 2010 (1.7% of total state population);
over half are in the three major metropolitan areas.
Hispanic numbers are also rapidly growing from 120,000 in 1980
to 140,000 in 1990, to 217,000 in 2000, and to 355,000 in 2010 with about 40%
living in the three major urban areas.
Expanding concentrations of Hispanics are found in the northern rural
and urban Ohio counties; however, these are
not yet concentrated to constitute a plurality in any Ohio counties.
25,000 Native Americans (2010) have no reservations and reside mostly in
urban Ohio. Note that while
alone numbers were virtually stagnant during this first decade of the 21st
century, alone-and-in-combinations with Native American blood went from 76,000
in 2000 to 90,000 in 2010.
the Sooner State is unusual. It was set up as "Indian Territory" during the early 19th
century and then was opened to wider settlement in the famous land grab a half
century later. Today, we find the
322,000 descendants of Native Americans (461,000 if considered in
combination) scattered throughout much of the state, and sometimes by tribal
groupings in or near the counties named for them. However, today 36,000 reside in Tulsa and 25,000 in Oklahoma City. Since so many tribes (Cherokee, Creek,
Seminole, etc.) were transferred from various parts of the eastern and
Midwestern United States, Oklahoma could be designated the Native American State.
recent decades, it has become a matter of pride to self-identify as a Native
American. Note that the 43 headquarters
of the various tribes in Oklahoma are indicated in the 2010
map, and that they are not always situated in counties bearing their respective
* The American Indian Cultural Center
North Broadway Suite 200
Oklahoma City, OK 73102